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Anton Lean Medina

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of ETHNICITY

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Etymology and Meaning
- Ethnikos (Greek)
-a band of people living together
-people of one's own kind
-Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredetary and cultural traditions.

-relates to cultural factors such as nationality, culture, ancestry, language and beliefs
-person's physical appearance, such as skin color, eye color, hair color, bone/jaw structure etc, that were transferred from a common ancestor.
The Caucasian Race
-Has the same physical appearance, such as skin color, eye color, hair color, bone/jaw structure etc.
-there are many ethnicities within the Caucasian race
-differences from each other is their country of origin, language they speak, cultural heritage and traditions, beliefs and rituals.
In The Philippines
-The Negritos/Aetas
-a sub-racial group of the Australoid Race
-Agtas/Aytas of Luzon
-Atis of Visayas
Indigenous People
-Igorot, Tingguian, Ifugao, Itawit
-Aeta and Agta
-Ati, Mangyan, Tadyawan, Tagbanwa, Palawano, Molbog, Kagayanan
-Moro and Lumad
Ethnicity vs. Race
Ethnicities in the Philippines

1. Mongoloid Race
2.Caucasoid Race
3.Australoid Race
4.Negroid Race

Mongoloid Race
-common in most of Asia (including Central Asia, South Asia, North Asia, etc.), the Arctic, the Americas and most of the Pacific Islands.
Caucasoid Race
-all of the populations of Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western, Central and South Asia.
Australoid Race
-Veddoid race, Aboriginal Australians, Papuans, Melanesian and Negrito Groups
-described as having dark skin with wavy hair
Negroid Race
-Congoid Race (East African)
-Capoid Race (South African)

Racial Distribution of the World
-largest Filipino ethnic group making up the majority - about 33 million people
-Bisaya is their major language but they have sub-languages
-well known for the festivals like the Ati-Atihan, Sinulog and Masskara
-approximately 25 million Tagalog people in the Philippines
-Tagalogs speak Tagalog which was the basis for Wikang Filipino or the Filipino Language
-majority of Tagalogs are Christians

-approximately 9 million Ilocanos in the Philippines
-were known to be fisherman and farmers
-language is also called Ilocano
-known for their hard work and frugality
-There are about 6 million Bicolanos in the Philippines
-Their language is called Bikol

- 3 million people from the Filipino ethnic group called Kapampangan
-this ethnicity is extended up to Tarlac
Why have Ethnicities been transformed into Nationalities?

Rise of Nationalities
-A group of people tied together to a particular place through legal status and cultural tradition
-attachment and and loyalty to a particular country

Nation State
-a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has transformed into a nationality
-ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Nation- States

-Danish have distinct sense of unity
-well preserved cultural characteristics
-nearly all of them speak the danish language

-loyalty and devotion to a nationality
-promotes a sense of national consciousness
-emphasizes its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations
-Nationalism is an important example of a centripetal force
Centripetal force- an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Multinational States
-a state that contains more than one ethnicity that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
Revival of Ethnic Identity
-Marxist ideals almost eradicated the Idea of Nationalism to intensify their Socialist Ideals
-The fall of communism paved way for the rise of nation-states
-The creation of new nation-states paved way for the revival of ethnic identity
Why Do Ethnicities Clash?
Ethnic Competition
Goal: To Dominate Nationality
-when ethnic groups compete for the dominance within various countries

Horn of Africa
-United Nations awarded Eritrea to Ethiopia
-Ethiopia prohibited Eritrea to run its own government
-30 year civil war
-2000, Ethiopia took possession of the disputed areas
-60% Muslim and 39% Christian
-religiously diverse
-each religious groups live separately in their own regions
-they formed their own "Militia"
-Civil war ended in 1990
-was left under control of Syria

Dividing Ethnicities among more than one state
-Pakistan and India
-East and West Pakistan (Muslim)
-India (Hindu)
-Gandhi, an advocate of peace between Muslims and Hindus, was assassinated
-6 million Muslims migrated from India to West Pakistan, 1 Million to East Pakistan
-6 million Hindus migrated from West Pakistan to India, 3.5 million from East Pakistan
What is Ethnic Cleansing?
-an attempt by a more powerful ethnic group to create an ethnically homogeneous region by forcibly evicting all members of another ethnic group
in Europe
-Largest forced migration came during world war II
-forced deportation by the Nazis of millions of Jews
-post- war boundary changes forced-migrated Germans out of Poland, Poles out of Soviet Union
in Central Africa
-Conflict between the Hutus and the Tutsis
-Tutsi took control of the Rwandan Kingdom and turned Hutus into serfs
-Rwanda became a colony of Germany then later of Belgium
-Rwanda gains independence, Hutus fight back, killed/Ethnically Cleansed the Tutsis
-Ethnic Cleansing caused 3 million Hutus to migrate to Zaire, Tanzania, Uganda and Burundi
-This conflict has spread to DRC
-5.4 million have died in Congo Civil War
-Countless rebellion continued in Congo
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