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The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920 Part II
Transcript of The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920 Part II
in Solution? What's the problem? Political Disempowerment group appointed by the King that met in Spain and sent its directives across the Atlantic the directives were carried out by the viceroys, officials appointed by Spain to govern the colonies Economic Disempowerment Spain had first right to colonial goods and resources.
Economic policy was set for Spain’s maximum benefit. Enlightenment Government is based on a contract between the ruler and the ruled. Government exists to protect the citizens’ natural rights of life, liberty, & property.
If the government violates the natural rights of the people, the citizens have a right to revolt against that tyranny. LEADERS Simon
Bolivar Elite Creole planter turned military general
Called the "George Washington of South America"
Liberated territories of modern day Venezuala, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia
His plan for a federated Latin America "Gran Colombia" was crushed by political in-fighting
San Martin Creole officer who had trained in European armies
Liberated Argentina from Spanish control
Met with Bolivar in 1822. While Bolivar favored democracy, San Martin felt only monarchy could work
Hidalgo Highly educated Creole priest assigned to town of Dolores.
September 16, 1810: El Grito de Dolores "Cry of Dolores" - Hidalgo rang the church bell and called upon his mestizo and indigenous parishioners to take up arms against the Spanish.
Led a rag-tag army toward Mexico City, unleashing mass slaughter of peninsulares in path.
Never made it to the capital -- Captured and shot in 1811. Jose Morelos Mestizo Priest who took over from Hidalgo.
Much more successful - “With three such men as Jose Morelos, I could conquer the world.” Napoleon Bonaparte
Established a congress which:
*Created a declaration of rights
*Declared equality of classes
Captured and executed in December 1815 Latin America EFFECTS political international economic By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by caudillos WHY?? The upper classes supported dictatorship because is kept the lower classes out of power.
The lower classes did not have experience with democracy. Dictatorship seemed normal. “The American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”
-James Monroe, 1823 WHY?? The War of 1812 with Britain had shown the U.S. that some-times revolutionary victories could lead to sequels.
The U.S. had political and economic interests in keeping Europe out of the Western hemisphere. From 1823 on, it would be the U.S.’ backyard.
Though the U.S. did not have the muscle to back up its threats, Great Britain agreed to support the Monroe Doctrine due to its new favorable trading position in Latin America. Now that trade was not restricted to the mother country, the U.S. and Great Britain became the new countries’ major trading partners.
A colonial economy continued… Latin America mainly exported cash crops and raw materials while importing manufactured goods. Trade Imbalance As the imbalance of trade grew, Latin American countries took out large loans from the U.S., Britain, and Germany to build infrastructure.
When the countries could not pay back their loans, foreign lenders gained control of major industries in Latin America. IMPORT EXPORT So do you think that the social pyramid changed at least? NO! Once the Spaniards were kicked out, the new governments seized their lands and put them up for sale, BUT….only the creoles could afford to buy them.
So the creoles replaced the peninsulares at the top of the social pyramid, but other classes remained right where they were before.
Bolivar's Final Word Simon Bolivar had taken up the cause of independence hoping to establish a new order where Latin American countries would be free, democratic, and federated (in agreement to work together.) Instead, upon his death, he saw a world in which dictators ruled and disunity reigned. Disgusted by what he saw, he gave a warning to future generations: "America is ungovernable. Those who served the cause of the revolution have only plowed the sea.” Monroe