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Chapter 4 Section 3- The Struggle for Liberty
Transcript of Chapter 4 Section 3- The Struggle for Liberty
First, A little more on the Declaration...
Ok...now on to Section 3
Supporting the War Effort-
Washington's most challenging task in the Continental Army was to raise troops
230,000 soldiers fought for the Continental Army
145, 000 in local militias
army offered low pay, harsh conditions, and a big risk of becoming a casuality...sounds great, huh?
wealthier men sometimes paid others to serve in their place (slaves/apprentices)
Defeats and Victories
As the Revolution continued, it became more deadly. At first the Continental Army suffered a number of defeats. In time, though, the Patriots' patience began to pay off.
In the beginning, Washington banned African Americans from serving in the Army
The Redcoats promised to grant freedom to any slave who fought on their side (majority fought with British)
Washington then allowed free African Americans to serve
Created a regime out of Rhode Island of both free and enslaved African Americans
Women in War
While men were at war, the women and children ran the farms and businesses
Helped making uniforms, bullets, and raised money
Served as spies, messengers and nurses for the Army
Mary Ludwig Hays- aka Molly Pitcher brought water to troops
when her husband was wounded, she took his place loading cannons
Deborah Sampson, dressed as a man and fought in several battles
Some wanted to make Canada the 14th colony, some felt that it was a waste
Benedict Arnold led his troops on a conquest of Canada
after a short battle on New Year's Eve, the Patriots were defeated
all hope of conquering Canada was abandoned
Washington moved his troops from Boston to New York in anticipation of the British arrival
June 1776, the British arrive led by General William Howe (remember him??? Boston?)
Through a series of battles, Howe's 32,000 men pushed Washington's untrained 23,000 men out of New York and in to New Jersey
Nathan Hale- sentenced to hang for spying behind enemy lines
"I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country
November 1776, Washington's army is on the run
Washington's remaining 6,000 men, are tired and discouraged.
Howe left New Jersey in the hands of German
, the Hessians
December 7, even after gaining 2,000 troops Washington retreated across the Delaware
Without a victory, Washington knew this would be the end
On Christmas night, 1776, during the middle of a winter storm, Washington and 2400 men silently rowed across the Delaware
Sprang upon the sleeping Hessians and quickly defeated them.
Battle of Trenton
By the Spring of 1777, the British were desperate for a victory
British General John Burgoyne devised a strategy to cut off New England.
He would attack from the North and Gen. Howe would come from the south and meet in Albany
Problem is this plan required perfect time in a time where communication was limited.
What Burgoyne didn't realize is Howe had left New York and captured Philadelphia
Gen. Burgoyne's army was bogged down in the forest.
The Patriots had chopped down trees making obstacles along the route
All along the route, the Redcoats were swarmed by the Patriot militia
On October 17, 1777, he was surrounded by militia and forced to surrender his entire army
Turning point for the Patriots and morale soared!
Battle of Saratoga
Help from Europe
Two Remarkable Europeans
wealthy, young Frenchman that used his own ship and brought a group of well-trained soldiers to serve.
served for free
became a general over a group of 2000 soldiers
encouraged other Frenchmen to support the war
1. Marquis de Lafayette
2. Baron Friedrich von Steuben
Experienced military officer from Prussia
trained troops for war
also brought hygiene to the army
Benjamin Franklin went to France in 1776 to ask for support from King Louis XVI
France didn't pledge their support until after the victory at Saratoga
May 1778- Congress ratified a treaty of support with France
provided supplies, ammunition, soldiers, and the French navy
supported the Patriots during the war
Bernando de Galvez- governor of Spanish Louisiana, led troops from Louisiana to Florida attacking British posts along the way
Winter at Valley Forge
no battles actually took place at Valley Forge but it is remembered for its suffering and courage
Winter, 1776- Washington and his 12,000 men set up camp at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
low on basic supplies like clothes, shoes, food, etc.
Harsh winter caused over 2,000 deaths
build small, crude shelters to block the winter snow storms
Amazingly, they continued to stand at their posts, marched to the order of von Steuben, becoming better soldiers
"To see men without clothes...without blankets to lie upon, without shoes...without a house or hut to cover them until those could be built, and submitting without a murmur, is a proof of patience and obedience which, in my opinion, can scarcely be paralleled (matched)." -General George Washington
War at Sea
During the Fall of 1775, the Continental Congress made plans to build American warships
Soon after they formally established the marines and the Continental Navy
February 1776- the tiny American navy attacked the British supply ships in Nassau (Bahamas)
seized the main supply fort on the island
weakened the British navy by attacking supply ships along the way
John Paul Jones
Scottish born naval hero who led many naval fleets against the British
when the French entered they gave him one of his own fleets. He named it, Bonhomme Richard (Gentleman Richard, after Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac
Most famous victory was the capture of the British warship Serapis on Sept. 23, 1779
War in the West
Both British and Patriots try to enlist Native Americans in the mid-west
George Rogers Clark- led militias in the Ohio River Valley
Clark combined several scattered settlements into an army called the Over Mountain Men (TN)
Targeting trading villages, he weakened the British support system
captured the British Fort Sackville, Kaskaskia, and Cahokia
America is awesome
War in the South
The British were not doing as well as they hoped in the North, so they changed their strategy and set their sights on the south
War in south was brutal
pitted Americans- Loyalists and Patriots -against each other in direct combat
One British office, Banastre Tarleston, refused to take prisoners and killed soldiers when they tried to surrender
Georgia, the last colony to join the Revolution, was the first to fall to the British
Failures in the South
1780- British General George Clinton took the port city of Charleston
British suffered only 250 casualties out of 14,000 men
Patriots surrendered four ships and 5,400 prisoners
August 1780, Patriot Gen. Horatio Gates tried unsuccessfully to drive the British out of Camden, South Carolina
Of 4,000 men only 700 escaped
the rest were killed or captured
The southern Patriots soon switch to swift hit and run attacks known as guerilla warfare
Francis Marion- led a group of guerilla soldiers called Marion's Brigade
Despite their efforts, the British could not catch Marion and his men
In frustration, a frustrated general said, " As for this...old fox, the devil himself could not catch him."
From that point on, he was known as the Swamp Fox (more on him later)
Battle of Yorktown
Early 1781- the war is going badly for the Patriots
The British held most of the South, New York and Pennsylvania
Patriot morale took another blow when Benedict Arnold was found to be a traitor (story)
Cornwallis makes a fatal mistake and moves his troops to Yorktown, Virginia
Washington sees the opportunity as a chance to trap Cornwallis
He combined his 2,500 troops with 4,000 French troops commanded by Comte de Rochambeau
16,000 French-American soldiers surrounded Cornwallis at Yorktown and dug trenches preventing ships from rescuing Cornwallis' arm
The French naval fleet seized control of the Chesapeake Bay, preventing ships from rescuing Cornwallis' army
fighting went on for weeks, ending with Cornwallis surrendering on October 19, 1781
Battle of Yorktown was the last major battle of revolution
Treaty of Paris
After Yorktown, only a few small battles took place.
Britain began peace talks with America after the loss of Yorktown
took two years to come to agreement
Treaty of Paris of 1783- Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States
set America's borders, gave right to settle west of colonies
Separate treaty returned Spain's land
Marquis de Lafayette
Baron Friedrich von Steuben