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Transcript of MICROBE ZOO
Hepatitis B Virus
Smallpox is found in small blood vessels of the skin, in the mouth and in the throat. 1/10 of the people have died with this virus in the last 3000 years. The last known death from smallpox was in 1978.
The symptoms of the smallpox are similar to other viral diseases; fever of at least 38.5 C, muscle pain, headache and weakness or being exhausted. Nausea, vomiting and backache often occur too. The physical stage usually lasts 2–4 days. By days 12–15 the first visible symptoms appear. Small reddish spots called enanthem appear on the lining of the inside of the mouth, the tongue, the palate and the throat.
Smallpox virus attacks skin cells, causing the characteristic pimples (called macules) that combine with the disease. Normally the macules appear first on the forehead, and then spread to the whole face.
They are round, tense and firm to touch.
The development takes only 24 to 36 hours and by the end of the second week the “pimples” have flatten and decreased, started to dry up, forming crusts. By day 16–20 crusts or scabs have formed all over the lesions, which have started to flake off, leaving scars.
The virus spreads through inhalation of airborne variola virus (smallpox virus), usually droplets revealing from an infected person from face-to-face, normally a distance of around 2 meters, but can also be spread by direct contact with clothing or bedding that’s infected. Smallpox is very contagious, but generally spreads more slowly than other viral diseases.
How Does The Virus Spread?
The two year old Rahima Banu
This bacteria, also known as Staph, causes many different diseases. They cause sickness straight away by infection. It's commonly founded on the skin, hair, in noses and in throats of humans and animals. The best-known Staphylococci are the main wrongdoers in hospital-acquired infections and they cause a thousands of deaths each year.
How does it look?
Under a microscope they look round and grouped together, a little like grapes.
Disease and Symptoms
Over 30 different types of Staphylococci can infect humans, but most infections are caused by Staphylococcus Aureus. The Staph Infection often begins with a small cut or scratch which gets infected by the Staphylococcus bacteria. The hardness of the skin infection depends on how quickly and how far or deep the bacteria is able to spread and whether the infection is treatable with antibiotics or not.
Some of the symptoms of the Staphylococci bacteria is vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, mild fever, loss of appetite or severe intestinal cramps.
It turned out that some people can eat this mushroom without ill effects, but if you are not one of those, it can cause serious stomach problems.
This fungi is poisonous and can give you symptoms like sweating, flushing and severe stomach cramps.
Where can this fungi be found?
This fungi is very common and widely spread in North America, Europe, West Asia, North and South Africa. It has been lately popularized in Australia too. It appears in woods, gardens and hedgerows in the autumn.
How does this fungi look like?
A white basic mushroom, but the bottom part that's hided under ground is yellow.
Hepatitis B is an contagious illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects apes and humans. Many people have no symptoms during the infection, but some develop an acute illness with vomiting, yellow skin, dark urine and stomach pain. These symptoms last a few weeks and rarely ends up with death. It may take 30 to 180 days for the symptoms to begin. Less than 10% of those infected people develop chronic hepatitis B. In those with a chronic disease, liver cancer may eventually develop.
How does this virus spread?
Intravenous drug use and sex are the main ways of infection. Other risk factors are working in a healthcare setting, blood transfusions, sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected person or traveling in countries where the infection rate is high. The hepatitis B virus cannot be spread by holding hands, kissing, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding
L. reuteri occurs naturally in humans, but is not found in every individual . Oral intake of L. reuteri is possible. Furthermore, L. reuteri is found in breast milk, and oral intake on the mother's part likewise increases the amount of L. reuteri present in her milk, and the possibility that it will be transferred to the child's body.
Once in the body, L. reuteri uses its host in a variety of ways, particularly by fighting off harmful infections and mediating the body's immune system.
Penicillium is a fungi of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production.
Penicillium is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside our body.
What does this fungi do?
The common appearance of Penicillium species in food is a particular problem. Some species produce toxins and may provide food uneatable or even dangerous.
On the other hand some species of Penicillium are useful to humans. Cheeses such as Roquefort, Brie, Camembert, Stilton, etc. are ripened with species of Penicillium and are quite safe to eat.
Penicillium species are in the air and dust of indoor environments, such as homes and public buildings. The fungus can be transported from the outdoors, and grow indoors using building material or accumulated soil to obtain nutrients for growth.
Where is the fungi found?
Herpes is spread very easily. If you got infected with the herpes-virus, the virus will be forever attended in your body. If you have symptoms or not, is different for everyone. Most infected people don't have symptoms and could give other people the herpes-virus too.
There is no cure for herpes, but medication is available to reduce symptoms and make it less likely that you will spread herpes to a sex partner.
Herpes can be attended almost everywhere
Mostly it's found around the mouth, or the genital parts.
Genital human papillomavirus (also known as HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of females and males. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat. HPV is not the same as herpes or HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). These are all viruses that can be passed on during sex, but they cause different symptoms and health problems.
How is this virus spread?
HPV is mostly passed on through genital contact. HPV can be passed on between straight and same-sex partners, even when the infected partner has no symptoms.
A person can have HPV, even after years since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person. Most infected persons do not know they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to another. It's also possible to get more than one type of HPV.
Pregnant and Infected
Very rarely, a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass HPV to her baby during delivery. In these cases, the child can develop recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, a rare condition in which warts grow in the throat.
Rabies is a viral disease that causes intense infection of the brain in humans and animals. The time between contracting the disease and the start of symptoms is usually one to three months, however, it can differ from less than one week to more than one year. The time depends on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system. Early symptoms may include fever and tingling at the site of exposure. Then it's followed by either violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, and fear of water or an inability to move parts of the body and confusion followed by loss of consciousness. In both cases, once symptoms appear it nearly always results in death.
How do you get infected?
The disease is spread to humans from another animal, mainly by a bite or scratch. Infected saliva that comes into contact with any mucous membrane is also a risk. Mostly most cases are the result of a dog bite, with this being the cause in more than 90% of cases in countries where dogs commonly have rabies.
Signs and Symptoms
The time between the infection and the first flu-like symptoms is typically 2 to 12 weeks with humans. Signs and symptoms may soon expand to partial paralysis, anxiety, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, terror, and hallucinations, progressing to delirium.
The person may have hydrophobia.
Death almost always occurs 2 to 10 days after the first symptoms. Survival is rare once symptoms have presented, even with the control of proper and intensive care.
Jeanna Giese, who in 2004 was the first patient treated with the Milwaukee protocol, became the first person ever recorded to have survived rabies without receiving successful post-exposure prophylaxis. Since this protocol is found, infected people has a survival rate of about 8%.
Most infected people with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps.
Salmonellosis, the illness caused by the bacteria, usually lasts four to seven days. Although, most persons recover without treatment, some people's diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized.
BY KATO ESTIEVENART