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Elements and Principles of Art
Transcript of Elements and Principles of Art
Width- thick, thin, tapering, uneven
Length - long, short, continuous, broken
Focus- sharp, blurry, fuzzy, choppy
Feeling- sharp, jagged, graceful, smooth
Direction- horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curving,
perpendicular, oblique, parallel, radial, zigzag Types of Line: Characteristics of Line: Outlines - Lines made by the edge of an object or its silhouette.
Contour Lines - Lines that describe the shape of an object and the
Gesture Lines - Line that are energetic and catches the movement and
gestures of an active figure.
Sketch Lines - Lines that captures the appearance of an object or
impression of a place.
Calligraphic Lines - Greek word meaning “beautiful writing.” Precise,
elegant handwriting or lettering done by hand. Also artwork that has flowing lines like an elegant handwriting.
Implied Line - Lines that are not actually drawn but created by a group
of objects seen from a distance. The direction an object
is pointing to, or the direction a person is looking at. Line in action Colour! What a deep and mysterious language, the language of dreams - Paul Gauguin Colour comes from light; if it weren’t for light we would have no colour.
Light rays move in a straight path from a light source.
Within this light are the rays of colours in the spectrum or rainbow.
Shining a light into a prism will create a rainbow of colours because it separates the colour of the spectrum.
When the light rays hits an object our eyes responds to the light that is bounced back and we see that colour. Colour in Action <= Cool Colour <= Warm Colour Intense Tones => Earth Tones => Cool colours recede in a landscape
while warm colours tend to become the foreground Paul Gauguin - 'Cat' Dale Chihuly - Howell fountain tower Carlos Cruz Diez - Chromosaturation Piet Mondrian - Still Life with Gingerpot II Paul Klee - Highway and Byways Robert Ingpen - Untitled M. C. Escher - Sketch of Atrani Geometric Shapes - Circles, Squares, rectangles and triangles.
We see them in architecture and manufactured items.
Organic Shapes - Leaf, seashells, flowers etc...
We see them in nature and with characteristics that are free flowing, informal and irregular.
Positive Shapes - In a drawing or painting positive shapes are
the solid forms in a design such as a bowl of fruit. In a sculpture it is the solid form of the sculpture.
Negative Shapes - In a drawing it is the space around the
positive shape or the shape around the bowl of fruit. In sculpture it is the empty shape around and between the sculptures.
Static Shape - Shapes that appears stable and resting.
Dynamic Shape - Shapes that appears moving and active. Categories of Shapes: Form: Form is the three-dimensionality of an object.
Shape is two-dimensional; form is three-dimensional.
You can hold a form; walk around a form and even walk inside a form.
In drawing or painting using value can imply form.
ie. Shading a circle in a certain manner can turn it into a sphere.
Form can be viewed from many different angles. Shape in action: Form in action: Alex Gray - Net of being Franz Marc - Fate of the Animals Peter Hugo McClure - Segmentation Bridget Riley Unity Carol Long - Vase Owen Rye - Blackwood Jar Pete Matilda - Metalwork Cilla Russell - Sanctity of Place, Vase Victor Enrich - Architecture Texture is the surface quality of an object. A rock may be rough and jagged. A piece of silk may be soft and smooth and your desk may feel hard and smooth. Texture also refers to the way a picture is made to look rough or smooth.
Real Texture is the actual texture of an object. Artist may create real texture in art to give it visual interest or evoke a feeling. A piece of pottery may have a rough texture so that it will look like it came from nature or a smooth texture to make it look like it is machine made.
Implied Texture is the where a two-dimensional piece of art is made to look like a certain texture but in fact is just a smooth piece of paper. Like a drawing of a tree trunk may look rough but in fact it is just a smooth piece of paper. Categories of Texture Twisted Love - Wayne Z Hudson Christo and Jeanne-Claude - Reichstag (and concept sketch) Vincent van Gogh - Starry Night Over the Rhone There is no light painting or dark painting, but simply relations of tones. - Paul Cezanne Tone is the range of lightness and darkness within a picture.
Tone is created by a light source that shines on an object creating highlights and shadows. It also illuminates the local or actual color of the subject.
Tone creates depth within a picture making an object look three dimensional with highlights and cast shadows, or in a landscape where it gets lighter in value as it recedes to the background giving the illusion of depth.
Tint is adding white to color paint to create lighter tones such as light blue or pink.
Shade is adding black to paint to create dark tones such as dark blue or dark red.
High-Key is where the picture is all light tones.
Low-Key is where the picture is all dark tones.
Tonal Contrast is where light tones are placed next to dark tones to create contrast or strong differences.
Tonal Scale is a scale that shows the gradual change in tone from its lightest tone, white to its darkest tone black. Categories of Value Paul Cezanne - Gardanne Chuck Close - Jud (Also known as
VALUE) John Wolseley - Slenderleaf Mallee Katsushika Hokusai - Portrait of Matsuo Basho Ansel Adams - Canyon de Chelly Think of the elements as building blocks - they are the fundemental parts of making artwork
Think of the principles as a blueprint - we use (or ignore) the principles as a guide to making artwork
An orderly arrangement of elements using the principles of design
The principles of design help you to carefully plan and organize the elements of art so that you will hold interest and command attention. This is sometimes referred to as visual impact. Composition In any work of art there is a thought process for the arrangement and use of the elements of design.
The artist who works with the principles of good composition will create a more interesting piece of art it will be arranged to show a pleasing rhythm and movement.
The center of interest will be strong and the viewers will not look away, instead, they will be drawn into the work.
A good knowledge of composition is essential in producing good artwork.
Some artists today like to bend or ignore these rules and therefore are experimenting with different forms of expression.
The basic principles are: Balance, Pattern, Rhythm, Repetition, Emphasis and Unity. Balance is whenever your focus is on the entire picture, not just one area. If your eyes are attracted to a specific area of the picture, this means the image is not balanced.
(This might be your intention, so a good awareness of balance is important to achieving your goal.)
Balance refers to the distribution of visual weight in a work of art. It is the visual equilibrium of the elements. Symmetrical Balance Symmetrical balance is whenever you can draw an imaginary line across the middle of the picture, (horizontal or vertical), and each side will be exactly (or almost) the same. Each side will be opposite, just as if you were staring at yourself in the mirror. Asymmetrical Balance Asymmetrical balance means that there is no symmetry
within the given art piece- this just means that there is no mirror images in place. You must use your senses to achieve asymmetrical balance. The art piece, however, is still balanced. Radial Balance The third type of balance is radial balance, where all elements radiate out from a center point in a circular fashion. It is very easy to maintain a focal point in radial balance, since all the elements lead your eye toward the center. Pattern uses the art elements in planned or random repetitions to enhance surfaces. Patterns occur in nature and mathematics. Artists use similar repeated motifs to create patterns in their work. Rhythm is the repetition of visual movement - colours, shapes or lines. Variety is essential to keep rhythms exciting and active. Jackson Pollock - Blue Poles Marcel Duchamp -
Nude Descending a Staircase Emphasis is used to create an area of dominance and focus. Colour, tone, shape and texture can all create emphasis. Different elements can be used to emphasise an area of interest.
(Avoid the sore thumb! Nothing in the composition should be so strong that the rest of the composition looks neglected!) Keep everything connected. Connect each part of the composition to something else in the composition Include Secrets. Artwork is more interesting and expressive if it has hidden features and ideas that it only reveals to diligent observers Challenge common assumptions. Strong artwork often makes the viewer question prior assumptions about the world M.C. Escher - Balcony Michelangelo da Caravaggio - Narcissus Cherish Mistakes. Mistakes are fascinating gifts, and what we do with them makes all the difference Unity occurs when an artwork is well-designed and planned by the artist. It provides cohesion to the artwork and makes it feel complete and finished. When the elements work as though they belong together, then the artist has achieved unity. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni - Unfinished Sculpture Pablo Picasso - Harlequin (unfinished) It's not an accident - it's a happy accident!