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Timeline of Victimology

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Amber Cook

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Timeline of Victimology

1800
1900
2014
1750
2000
Timeline of Victimology
1765
William Blackstone writes marital unity doctrine ( a man may treat wife the way he would a child or apprentice)
1800 - 1850
1827 - Bradley v. Mississippi – first judicial opinion in U.S in which domestic violence was overtly condoned (the right to chastisement)
1827 - James Kent’s Commentaries on American Law (husband is the guardian over the wife)
1828 - Delaware court found that a man may not strike his pregnant wife
1832 - New York courts opposed this ruling and found that not allowing a man to chastise his wife could lead to moral corruption
1850 - 1900
1864 - State v. Black (NC) A husband cannot be convicted of a battery on his wife unless he inflicts a permanent injury or uses such excessive violence or cruelty as indicates malignity or vindictiveness.
1871 - Knight v. Knight (IA) – a woman can not be granted divorce on the grounds of cruel treatment. (court ruled that her own misconduct caused violence experienced.)
1871 - Commonwealth v. McAfee (MA) Man killed his drunk wife by beating her, while on trial asked for judge to instruct jury that he had the legal right to administer due & proper correction and corporeal chastisement on his wife. Judge refused and ruled that beating or striking a wife violently with the open hand is not one of the rights conferred on a husband by the marriage, even if the wife be drunk or insolent
1900 - 1950
In the Early 1900s divorce laws were liberalized – divorce because of cruelty was now allowed.
1910 - 35/46 states had passed liberalized divorce laws like these – 'domestic relations courts' opened to handle overwhelming number of cases.
1915-1920 - 25 cities adopted Chicago’s protective agency
1931 - FBI created the UCR (Uniform Crime Reporting)
1940s - women’s bureaus disappeared (departments within police departments) (end of social work era)
1950 - 2000
1956 - Mendelsohn wrote 6 degrees of victim blame
1958 – 1960 Amir (does a study on rape - Seen as promoting victim blaming in rape cases)
1957 - Margaret Fry – suggested victim compensation in England
1960s - compensation and restitution begins
1961 - Mapp v. Ohio - no evidence from illegitimate searches may be used to convict
1963 - New Zealand adopts compensation
1965 - 1st act to protect victims’ rights
1965 - California initiates first victim compensation in USA by 1979 28 other places had victim compensation as well
1965 - Schafer Victim and criminal – precipitation
2000 - 2005
2000 - VOWA II – 3.3billion over 5 more years
2000 - Victims of trafficking and violence prevention act (uniform nationally)
2001 - Special Federal victim compensation (9/11)
By 2002 - 2/3 states gave constitutional rights to compensation
2003 - Amber Alert went national
2003 - National office on violence against women created by DOJ
2003 - Smith et al., v. Doe et al. (sex offenders didn’t want their info & photos posted Supreme Court upheld registry ruled it was done to protect people, not to punish offenders)
2004 – January becomes national stalking awareness month (office on violence against women)
2005 - 2014
2006 - Adam Walsh child protection and safety act an act to protect children from sexual exploitation and violent crime, to prevent child abuse & child pornography, to promote internet safety
2007 – Crime victims’ rights rules act – guaranteed victim rights & guidance in federal court
2008 – Trafficking victim protection reauthorized – went worldwide
2010 – National survey of white collar crime shows 24% of households & 17% individuals experienced in last 12 months
2013 – VAWA was reauthorized – education in teen violence, barriers removed for LGBT definitions expanded stalking definitions


1850 - 1900 cont.
1871 - Fulgham (AL) allowed for husbands prosecution equal protection of woman as to a man (to not be beaten)
1885 - Chicago protective agency for woman and children created
1889 – 1894 58 out of 60 men arrested for Domestic Violence in Charleston SC were black.
1830s
printing press created. published widely & cheaply. Crimes began being reported in the media.
1900 - 1950 cont.
1940s-1950s - rise of psychology &
treatment
of individuals; people are no longer victims & criminals but are
clients
.
1948 - Von Hentig – the criminal & his victim (Some people are predisposed to becoming criminal and victims. Victims usually include: the rich, children & the elderly
6 degrees of victim blame
Completely innocent victims
Victim’s with minor guilt
Victim as guilty as offender/voluntary victim
Victim more guilty than offender
Most guilty victim
Simulating or imaginary victim
1950 - 2000 cont.
1966 - Miranda rights (coddling of offenders)
1967 - President’s commission filed for better investigation of crime
1970s Womens Rights Movement
Childrens Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
Dispute resolution
1972 - London opened the first DV shelter
1972 - NCS (National Crime Survey) began (sample of 72,000 people) 12,000 houses interviewed every 6 months for 3 years
1972 - first 3 victim assistance programs open in the US 2 are rape crisis centers (DC & SF)
1972 - NCS becomes NCVS (National Crime Victims Survey)
1973 - LEAA (Law Enforcement Assistance Administration) conference
1974 funding established the first local victim/witness programs
1975 funding of national office of victim assistance
1950 - 2000 cont.
1974 - Federal child Abuse Prevention Act and Treatment Act
1978 - First National victim resource center founded by LEAA block grants
1978 - National Coalition against DV was founded
1978 - Steinmetz coined the term 'elder abuse'
1979 - Crime victims’ book published – identifying and meeting victims’
1979 - The cycle of violence by Lenore Walker
1980s - TROs (temporary restraining order) became available
1980s - rape shield laws (Limits cross-examination of victim’s past sexual behavior)
1980 - MADD formed (Mother against drunk driving)
1980 - 1st victims bill of rights was formed in Wisconsin
1950 - 2000 cont.
1980 - National Campaign for Victims’ rights founded
1980 - NIBRS (National Incident-Based Reporting System)
1981 - First victims’ week started under the Reagan administration
1981-1982 - Minneapolis Experiment (Police responding to DV calls are instructed to pick a card that directs them how to respond to call)
1982 -1 National Victim and Witness Protection Act was founded – omnibus victim/witness protection act was matching federal act
1982 - Founding of presidents task force for victims of crime (VOCA resulted)
1983 - National conference on the judiciary and victim rights
1983 - Office of victims of crime opens within the DOJ (Department of Justice)
1983 - USAG creates guidelines for the treatment of federal victims and witnesses
1950 - 2000 cont.
1984 - VOCA Reagan – Funded with (not taxes) offender fines, rainy day backup only used 3 times within the last 8 years
1984 - USAF task force report
1984 - Thurman v. Torrington Police (CT) Police did not protect her
1984 - Family Violence Prevention and Treatment Act made elder abuse/neglect illegal
1984 - Older Americans Act (states to assess problems with elder abuse.)
1987 - Booth v. MD. No VIS (Victim Impact Statements) during sentencing
1989 - Gathers v. SC no statements about victim character by prosecution allowed
1990 - California implements stalking laws
feds implemented in 1996
By 1990 – 48 states made restitution a punishment unto itself (not connected with other punishments)

Thurman v. Torrington Police
After Tracey Thurman was attacked, stabbed, and nearly killed by her husband on June 10, 1983, a subsequent civil lawsuit judged that the local police had ignored growing signs of domestic violence and had casually dismissed restraining orders and other legal bars to keep Charles "Buck" Thurman, Sr. away from his wife. With this lawsuit, filed in 1984, Thurman was the first woman in America to sue a town and its police department for violating her civil rights, claiming the police had ignored the violence because she was married to the perpetrator. She was awarded $2.3 million.
1950 - 2000 cont.
1990s - Police academies added DV training to curriculum
1990 - Criminal Control Act created the victims Bill of Rights
1990 - Clery Act required universities to accurately record records of crimes that happen on campus that people can access (make campus safer)
1991 - Payne v. TN (victim impact statement is admissible during the sentencing phase of a trial and, in death penalty cases, does not violate the Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause)
1992 - Family violence and prevention and services act
1992 - Hate crime statistics act (requires the Attorney General to collect data on crimes committed because of the victim's race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity)
Violence Against Women Act
• CJ responses to violence against women
• Services in communities
• Improve safety of women in public (public safety measures)
• Education, health and data services for women victims
• STOP (services and training for Officers and Prosecutors) DV

1950 - 2000 cont.
1993 - OAA reinstated to create protections for the elderly.
1994 - VAWA I (Violence against women act) 1.2 billion spent between 1995-2000
1994 - Model Code on Domestic and Family Violence by national council of juvenile and family court justices
1994 - child abuse registry launched
1996 - implementation of national domestic violence hotline
2005 - 2014 cont.
2014 1/13 – OVC 8.3 million to support victims of Boston Marathon bombings
2014 – Interstate compact ICAOS interstate compact for adult offender supervision
2014 – Sexual assault kit backlog reduction law – 6 states & the feds (12 stated have laws pending on this)

VOCA - Victims of Crime Act
• 4 million crime victims each year
• DV, sexual assault, child abuse, elder abuse, drunk driving, survivors of homicide
• Federal victim notification system
• Emergency relief to victims of terrorism and mass violence
• Child abuse prevention and treatment programs
• Prosecutors, law enforcement agencies and victims advocates
• DV and sexual assault victims make up half of those receiving services – shelters crisis centers child abuse treatment programs


Dispute Resolution
• 3rd party mediators
• Disputants usually know each other
• Participation must be voluntary
• Processes are informal
• Usually referred by the CJ professional

The Cycle of Violence
Tension building
Battering episode
Honeymoon phase

2000 - 2005 cont.
2004 - estimated that 380,000 cases of elder abuse/neglect had occured
2005 – National online sex offender registry is commissioned
2005- Combating trafficking
2005 - National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System – 899,000 abused
1950 - 2000 cont.
1996 - Megan’s Law (requires law enforcement authorities to make information available to the public regarding registered sex offenders)
1997 - victims rights clarification act – OKC bombing
1997 - Kansas v. Hendricks Aimed at sexually violent predators
1998 - Crime victims w/ disabilities act
1999 - 4% of population was over 65
2005 12.5% of population was over 65
By 2030 20% of population will be over 65
Full transcript