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Alternative energies 2.o

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Jenna McGivney

on 26 March 2015

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Transcript of Alternative energies 2.o

Alternatives Energies
What are they?

They are alternative ways to produce
electricity other than using fossil fuels.
They are typically renewable, which means they can be reproduced fast.
They also produce less pollution and GHG's
They all have Pros and Cons to their use.
Wind Power
The use of moving wind to produce electricity
Humans have been doing this long before the need for clean energy
The Turbines can be used on land, for your home or offshore.
Biomass
Using living or once living things to produce energy.

There are MANY different ways that biomass is utilized.
Types of fuels
Virgin Wood
Virgin wood consists of wood and other products such as bark and sawdust which have had no chemical treatments.
Used for burning
Biofuels
Using corn, wheat and soy to produce fuel.
Food Waste
Composting on a large scale.
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear reactors split an atom in half creating two smaller atoms.
When this happens a HUGE amount of energy is released. This is called
FISSION
.
That energy is used to heat up water to turn into steam.
The steam then turns a turbine to create electricity.
Hydro-power
What is it?

The use of moving water to make electricity.

Dams
Wave energy
Alternative energies 2.o
By Miss Mc Givney

Dams for Hydro-power
How does it work?

What are the Pro's?

What are the Con's?


Hydroelectricity
Older form of electricity and was formed almost over 100 years ago.
In a nut shell
The water moves a turbine to make electricity .

Examples:
Hoover damn is the most famous
Markland Lock Dam in Indiana
Pros (good things)
Renewable Energy
Constant electricity
Long Lasting
No GHG produces
Water in reservoir can be used for irrigation
Cons (Bad things)
Expensive
Floods natural areas
Can trigger Earthquakes
People down river suffer
Interrupts fish breeding hurting the ecosystem
They now build pathways for the fish
Wave Energy
Using a piston
There are multiple ways to use the ocean

The goal:
Turn a turbine to produce electricity
Using the tides
There is also
Pros
Consistent
Renewable
No Pollution or GHG
Efficient
Fairly Cheap
Protects the shores
interrupts waves
Cons
Ocean can break them down easy
Hurt marine life habitats
Get in the way of shipping routes
Not very popular
How they work
The wind spins a generator
Pros
There is no pollution or GHG
We will never run out of wind
Efficient
Getting very cheap
Growing

Cons
The wind does not always blow
Threat to some wildlife like birds and bats
There is a noise produced
People do no like to look at them
Take up land
Pros
Renewable
They decrease CO2 when they are growing
Can be grown fairly quick
Less pollution when burned
Cons
Growing them takes up a lot of land and space
They do release CO2 when they are burned
Increased fertilizer is needed to help them grow
Some facts
The US has a little over 100 nuclear Power Plants.
Nuclear power makes up about 1/5 of all of the US electricity.
Usually Uranium or Plutonium used.
Indiana has 2 attempted.
Fission
PROS
Little GHG produced
Already Known
A lot of energy is produced to meet demands
Dealing with waste is becoming more advanced.
Cons
Offshore
Expensive to make due to radiation
Radiation is dangerous and contaminant
Radiation has LONG decay rates
If an accident occurs it is very dangerous
Target for terrorists
Solar Radiation
Harnessing the Sun to produce energy.
two main ways this is done
Photovoltaic Cells
Use of Mirrors to concentrate the radiation
Photovoltaic (PV)
The panels convert the radiation into direct electricity.
There are elements inside the PV that generate it.
Concentrated Mirrors
All of the mirrors are pointing towards the center. The center is water the turns to steam to move a turbine.
Parabolic Trough
The mirrors are shaped like a parabola. There is fluid (usually water) in the pipes that gets superheated to turn a turbine to create electricity.
Pros
Renewable
Abundant
Environmentally Friendly
Silent
Low maintenance
Government support.
Cons
PV- materials are expensive.
Requires Space and abundant sunshine.
Mirrors must be kept clean
Storage of energy

Geothermal
Using the temperature from the Earth to regulate the temperature of homes.

Using the intense heat from the Earth to heat up water and move a turbine to create electricity.
Home Use
Pipes laid under and around home to regulate temperature.
Commercial and Industrial
Very deep wells heat up water to spin a turbine.
Pros
No GHG produced
Very renewable.
Tax credit (discount from govt) for homes with geo units.
Cheap to keep up and running
It is constant and does not fluctuate.

Cons
Building is expensive
Homes must have proper landscape
Plants can only be in specific areas.
upkeep of the plant
Energy is not easily transported
Hydrogen
The most common element in the Universe
Simplest element on the periodic table
Hydrogen is abundant but is usually attached to other compounds such as Methane CH4 and Water H20
The main use is Hydrogen as fuel for cars instead of gasoline.
Hydrogen Cars
Run off pure hydrogen. Only water comes from the exhaust pipes making them zero emission cars.
Pros of Hydrogen fuel
No harmful emissions
Non toxic
Used in Rockets
Renewable
Hydrogen fuel is more efficient than gasoline
Cons of Hydrogen Fuel
Freeing the hydrogen from other substances can be expensive
Not very easily transported
Gas stations would have to be re-done in order to put hydrogen into their storage systems form pumping
Flammable
Use of fossil fuels to get hydrogen

Algae can save the planet
Using algae as fuel or oil source is an awesome idea.

Why?

It is easy to grow
It is easy to grow a lot of
It can grow anywhere
It uses CO2 and recycles waste water (sewage)
Not harmful
For oil
Using algae to produce crude oil (raw oil just like fossil fuels)
Still in development to becoming more efficient.
The goal is to not interrupt the way gas is distributed now. Algae oil can be easily integrated into already existing tanks/pumps.
Algae Powered building
Other cool stuff
Algae in feed for animals. Instead of just corn and soy beans algae being introduced into feed.
This is a good thing because algae grows fast and can be harvested on a daily basis.
It can also cut back on cutting down trees in order to make more farm land.
When animals have healthier diets, humans become healthier.
More cool stuff
Hamburg Germany...IT IS REAL!
Recycling human waste water.
The sewage from big cities have nutrients to help algae grow. When the algae dies it can also be collected and turned into fuel.
Starting in Australia
Cons
Still in development
Cost money to implement
Requires water and specific temperatures
Will need phosphorus which is scarce
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