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SURREALISM

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Transcript of SURREALISM

SURREALISM
created by:
Salvador Dali

media:
oil paint on canvas

dimensions:
115cm X 144cm

location:
Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art

inspiration:
during one of his hallucinations; he liked to portray his dreams as "double visions"


Apparition of Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach (1938)
created by:
Rene Magritte (Nov 21 1898
- Aug 15 1967)

media:
oil on canvas

dimensions:
147 cm X 99cm

location:
Art Institute of Chicago Building

inspiration:
Edward James, art collector, asked Magritte to paint canvases to hang in the ballroom of his home
Time Transfixed (1938)
Two Children Threatened by a Nightingale (1924)
created:
Rene Magritte (Nov 21 1898 -
Aug 15 1967)

media:
oil on canvas 63.5cm X 93. 98cm

location:
Los Angeles County Museum of Art

inspiration:
painting juxtapositions. “ He likely borrowed pipe motif from Le Corbusier’s book Vers une architecture (1923)

Surrealism
Originated in Paris in 1924 with publication of Manifesto of Surrealism by the poet and critic André Bretonand ended in 1966 with Bretonand's death
Surreal art normally contains objects of everyday life to create products of the imagination and dreams
The Treachery of Images (1929)
created by:
Salvador Dali (May 11 1904 - Jan 21 1989)

media:
oil paint on canvas

dimensions:
24cm X 33 cm

location:
Museum of Modern Art, NYC

inspiration:
painted during a hallucination (self-induced psychotic hallucination); landscape from his background, melting watches influenced by Einsteins Theory of Relativity:
"hand-painted dream photographs"


The Persistence of Memory (1931)
created by:
Joan Miro (Apr 201893 -
Dec 25 1983)

media:
oil on canvas

dimensions:
93cm X 66cm

location:
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, NYC

inspiration:
reference to Spain’s past and political upheaval in Europe; expresses political statements


The Tilled Field (1923)
created by:
Paul Delvaux (Sept 23 1897 -
July 20 1994)

media:
oil on canvas

dimensions:
153cm X 210cm

location:
Museum of Modern Art, Toyama

inspiration:
loved trains as a child, first train he saw was electric train in Brussels


Night Train (1947)
created by:
Jean Arp aka Hans Arp, originally Hans Peter Wilhelm Arp and Jean-Pierre Guillaume Arp (Sept 16 1887 - June 7 1966)

media:
gouche on board with cutouts 7

dimensions:
5.2cm X 59.7cm

location:
Museum of Modern Art, NYC

inspiration:
“free” form created by chance (cutting paper and letting it fall to the floor)

Mountain, Table, Anchors, Navel (1925)
created by:
Salvador Dali & Walt Disney

media:
animation/film featuring surreal art by Dali

summary:
"the story of Chronos (Greek God of time), the personification of time and the inability to realize his desire to love for a mortal"

length:
6 minutes

"A magical display of the problem of life in the labyrinth of time." - Salvador Dali
Destino (2003)
description:
In The Persistence of Memory there is a seaside landscape. Despite the blue sky, Dali uses a warm color palette for this painting. In the top right hand corner is a cliff, and to contrast that, in the bottom left corner is a desk. On top of the desk are 2 melting clocks. One is directly on the desk, while the other hangs off a branch of a little tree on the desk. In the bottom corner of the desk is an amber-like clock which has cants crawling on top of it. From what I consider the focal point of the piece is a lump of flesh, which is said to be a deformed eye and nose (sometimes thought to be self-portrait of Dali) on top it is another melting clock.

in depth analysis:

seaside landscape: a landscape from Dali's home region Catalonia, Spain
melting clocks: Lpossibly inspired by Einstein's theory of time and relativity or irrelvance of time during sleep
closed eye: on lump of flesh suggests dream state or things the natural eye cant see
inspired by psychoanalytic values (Dali wanted to meet Sigmund Freud)
Conceptual/ Intellectual Indicators
Surrealists’ tended to paint images that interpreted the thoughts and desires of the unconscious mind. They would be inspired by their dreams and imagination.
“ According to Breton, Surrealism reunited the realms of dream and fantasy and linked them to the everyday rational world to create "an absolute reality, a surreality."
Quotes from the Artists
Surrealism is destructive,
but it destroys only what it
considers to be shackles
limiting our vision. - Salvador Dali


The mind loves the unknown.
It loves images whose meaning
is unknown, since the meaning of
the mind itself is unknown.
- René Magritte


By Kryza Talavera

For me an object is something living.
This cigarette or this box of matches
contains a secret life much
more intense than that of certain
human beings. - Joan Miro


I paint what cannot be photographed,
that which comes from the imagination
or from dreams, or from
an unconscious drive. - Man Ray

What's happening?
people recovering from the trauma of WWI
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
subconscious mind and imagination
created by:
Max Ernst (Apr 2 1891 -
Apr 1 1976)

media:
oil on wood

dimensions:
70 cm X 57cm X 11 cm

location:
Museum of Modern Art, NYC

inspiration:
when he was a child death of his pet cockatoo that left him scarred, suffered confusion between birds and humans

Terminology of Surrealism
Research Citations
description:
quarter view of a room with wooden floors and cream was. The focal point of the piece is a fire place with a train (referred to as a locomotive by Magritte) that looks as if it's charging out of the fireplace vent. On the mantle of the fire place is a box clock and two candlesticks. Behind these items is a mirror that reflects the back of the clock and one of the candlesticks. Smoke from train goes up chimney and seems it comes from a fire.

in depth analysis:
"Rene Magritte believed that all beings and objects are mysterious... he too possessed and aura of mystery."
majority of Magritte's paintings were juxtapositions
compare contradicting objects and find similarities that go unrecognized
"Magritte felt that mirrors provide mystery in the sense that they are a false reflection of reality" which is why mirrors are sometimes included in his paintings
To add on to the "mystery effect" only the clock and one of the candlesticks are reflected
shows Magritte's interest in Chiroco's the
Philosopher's Conquest
by the colours he uses, the brush strokes and shadowing.
fits the movement of Surrealism because are forced to ask questions to understand the mystery of the paining even more.

"I decided to paint the image of a locomotive. . . . In order for its mystery to be evoked, another immediately familiar image without mystery— the image of a dining room fireplace—was joined."- Magritte (May 1997)
description:
what one sees all depends on the viewer. When I first looked a this painting I saw an image of a face. Looking again There is a white and brown dog, another look and you'll see either a desolate beach or a bowl of pairs. There are brown skinned pears in a bowl shaped like a wine glass. This wine glass also forms a face, this is a common optical illusion. The "eyes" of the face are created by the snails which art part of the background, a desolate beach. Looking to the top of this beach, a dog's head is formed out of the hills, while the bridge is his collar. By connecting parts of the other images you can see a profile of a dog.

in depth analysis:

indicator for how Dali liked to use multivalent images to stimulate the conscious mind
how objects are placed "make the metamorphoses and unexpected juxtapositions of the objects even more startling"
open to the interpretation of the viewer
at first, only images seen were the table top with a bowl of pairs, a landscape and a face until a careful study revealed the image of dog
Dali's double image paintings became popular with the American public because they were “entertainments on the level of crossword puzzles.”
During this time Dali kicked out of the Surrealist group by Andre Brenton when he felt that Dali was becoming too commercialized nicknamed Dali,
Avida Dollars
"describing what he perceived as Dalí’s greed for money and fame."
fits the Surrealism movement because it challenges us to see the hidden images within the composition and is literally a representation of the mind because it was one of Dali's "hand-painted dream photographs", a way to record his hallucinations
description:
a pipe with the words "
Ceci n'est pas une pipe
" meaning "This is not a pipe" on a cream background

in depth analysis:
example of Magritte's love for painting juxtapositions; liked to compare contradicting objects and find similarities that are unrecognized
the word "pipe" is not actually a physical pipe, the image of a pipe is just an image
" highlights the gap between language and meaning... [a] problem between image, text and reality."
fits the movement of surrealism because it forces us question the importance of language and communication
automatism
: create without control of the conscious aka automatic drawing

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory:
theory on how the personality is organized and the development on how personalities change; deals with psychoanalysis

psychoanalysis:
clinical method to treat psychopathy

organic Surrealist:
artists who painted forms from their imagination and were emotionally expressive but didn't represent anything (eg. Max Ernst, Joan Miro, Jean Arp)

narrative Surrealist:
clearly showed hallucinatory world where the subjects are represented but in a way that didn't make sense. (eg. Salvador Dali, Rene Magritte and Paul Delvaux)

paranoiac-critical method:
a creative process of understanding unconscious thoughts and feelings/desires, through visualization (used and invented by Dali)

hand-printed dream photographs:
what Dali refers to his paintings as since he would keep a canvas beside his bed to "capture" his dreams when he woke up

multivalent:
open to interpretations, meaning, values

double images:
actually individual compositions with everyday items and surroundings in
which multiple images are seen and come together as a whole

Andreotti, Margherita. "About This Artwork." The Art Institute of Chicago. The Art Institute of
Chicago, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2016.
<http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/34181>.


Biddington's. "Surrealism. Art Words and Terms at Biddington's." Surrealism. Art Words and Terms
at Biddington's. BIDDINGTON'S, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
<http://www.biddingtons.com/content/pedigreesurreal.html>


Biography.com Editors. "Salvador Dalí Biography Painter (1904–1989)."
Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
<http://www.biography.com/people/salvador-dal-40389#synopsis>.


"Meaning of The Persistence of Memory (c. 1931) by Salvador Dali Analysis
and Meaning of a Painting by Spanish Surrealist Painter." Authentic
Society. WordPress, 14 Feb. 2015. Web. 2 Jan. 2016.
<http://www.authenticsociety.com/about/thepersistenceofmemory_dali>.


Powers, Sophia. "Rene Magritte Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works." The Art Story. The
Art Story Contributors, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
<http://www.theartstory.org/artist-magritte-rene.htm>


Puchko, Kristy. "15 Things You Didn't Know About 'The Persistence Of Memory'" Mental Floss.
Mental Floss, Inc, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
<http://mentalfloss.com/article/62725/15-things-you-didnt-know-about-persistence-memory>.





Remer, Ashley. "Joan Miró Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works." The Art Story.
The Art StoryContributors, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
<http://www.theartstory.org/artist-miro-joan.htm>.


The Art Story Contributors. "Surrealism Movement, Artists and Major Works." The Art Story. The
Art Story Contributors, n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2015.
<http://www.theartstory.org/movement-surrealism.htm>.


The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Jean Arp French Artist."
Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica,12 Dec. 2008. Web. 21 Dec.2015.
<http://www.britannica.com/biography/Jean-Arp>.


"Salvador Dalí, Apparition of Face and Fruit Dish on a Beach | Wadsworth
Atheneum." Wadsworth Atheneum. 2016 Wadsworth Atheneum, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
<http://www.wadsworthshop.org/products/salvador-dali-poster>.


Salvador Dali. Hoo: Grange, 2003. Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia
Museum of Art. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
<https://www.philamuseum.org/micro_sites/exhibitions/dali/downloads/edu/imagePacket.pdf>.


Voorhies, James. "Surrealism." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, Oct. 2004. Web. 26 Nov. 2015.
<http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/surr/hd_surr.htm>
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