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The Sun

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Stephany Fernandes

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of The Sun

What is the Sun?
The sun is a star, specifically a G star (usually a colour ranging from white to yellow and a temperature from 4000 to 6000 degrees Celsius)
It is a hot ball of glowing gases
It is the center of our solar system
Without the sun's energy or heat there would be no life on Earth
There are billions of stars like our sun scattered across the Milky Way galaxy
The Sun

What is the Sun's size?
The sun holds
99.8%
of the solar system's mass
It is roughly 109 times the diameter of the Earth
About one million Earths could fit inside the sun
How old is the sun? How was it formed?
The sun was born about
4.5 billion years ago
Many scientists think the sun and the rest of the solar system was formed from a giant, rotating cloud of gas and dust known as the solar nebula.
As the nebula collapsed because of its gravity, it spun faster and flattened into a disk - most of the material was pulled toward the center to form the sun
What is the sun composed of?
Just like most other stars, the sun is made up mostly of hydrogen, followed by helium.
Chemical Composition of the Sun:
helium - 26%
hydrogen - 72%
2% other elements like carbon, oxygen, neon, nitrogen, etc..
Is the sun everlasting?
The sun has enough nuclear fuel to stay much as it is now for another 5 billion years
After that it will swell to become a red giant
Eventually it will shed its outer layers, and the remaining core will collapse to become a white dwarf star
Slowly this will fade, to enter its final phase as a dim, cool theoretical object sometimes known as a black dwarf star
Structure of the Sun
The sun and its atmosphere are divided into several zones and layers
What is the sun's temperature?
The visible part of the sun is about
5, 500 degrees Celsius
(10,000 degrees Fahrenheit)
Temperatures in the core reach
15 MILLION degrees Celsius
(27 million degrees Fahrenheit)
According to NASA, you would need to explode 100 billion tons of dynamite every second to match the energy produced by the sun
Solar Nebula
The solar interior is made up of the:
core
(which holds nearly half of the sun's mass and 2% of the sun's volume)
radiative zone
(32% of the Sun's volume and 48% of its mass)
convection zone
(66% of volume and 2% of mass)
The solar atmosphere above the interior consists of the:
photosphere
(emits the light we see - temperatures range from 4,000-6,000 degrees C)
chromosphere
(hotter then the photosphere (20,000 C)
transition region
(sheds most of its light as ultraviolet rays)
corona
(500,000 - 6 million C)
Beyond that is the solar wind, an outflow of gas from the corona.
The Sun's Magnetic Field
The strength of the sun's magnetic field is typically only about twice as strong as Earth's field
However, it becomes highly concentrated in small areas, 3,000 times stronger than usual
The kinks and twists in that the magnetic field develop because the sun spins more rapidly around the equator than at the higher latitudes and because the inner parts of the sun rotate more quickly than the surface
These distortions create features ranging from sunspots, sun flares and coronal mass ejections
Flares are the most violent eruptions in the solar system
Solar Flare
The Hellfire Project: How The Sun Works
Full transcript