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Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs
Transcript of Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs
Awareness of everything going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment.
You use this to organize your behavior, including thoughts, sensations, and feelings.
awake with thoughts, feelings, and sensations clear and organized. You feel alert.
Shift in the quality or pattern of your mental activity.
Biological rhythms->Sleep-Wake Cycle->Circadian Rhythm
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (Internal Clock)
Sensitive to light.
When light fades, tells the pineal gland to secrete melatonin.
Other influences of Sleep
Microsleeps: Brief sleeping, lasting only a few
Missing one night of sleep?
simply task may be difficult
complex task are unaffected
staring off into space
Theories of Sleep
Why do we sleep WHEN we sleep??
Adaptive Theory: Evolution. Predator/Prey
Why do we NEED to sleep??
Restoration Theory: Growth, repair, replenish.
Most adults need 7-9 hours per night
Short sleepers need 4-5
Long sleepers need over 9.
STAGES OF SLEEP
REM: active, dreaming, can't move
Non-REM: deeper, restful, movement
EEG-brain wave activity
Beta waves-small and fast
Alpha waves-longer, slower
Theta waves-even longer, slower
Delta waves-longest and slowest
Awake, alert: Beta Waves
Awake, relaxed: Alpha Waves
Theta waves will begin to replace Alpha waves....
Usually unaware of sleeping
hypnagogic images (as you are falling asleep)
hypnopompic images (as you are waking up)
Sleep Spindles: EEG shows quick burst of activity
Spindles are also known as "K Complexes"
Aware you are sleeping
10%-50% Delta Waves
50%+ Delta Waves
Deepest stage of sleep
GH released from Pituitary
Body temp increases
eyes move rapidly under eyelids
heart beats much faster
brain waves resemble beta waves
90% of dreaming is during REM
Infant REM is different.
longer and no paralysis
Nightmares: bad dreams. more likely in kids.
REM Behavior Disorder: Rare, usually in men over 60.
Inhibition of voluntary muscle movement FAILS.
Able to act out nightmares.
Stage 4 Sleep Disorders
20% of population
More common in boys
No memory of it
State of panic while sound asleep
May move, scream
No memory of it
Inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get good quality sleep.
Helpful hints to combat insomnia.
1. Sleepy, go to bed
2. Beds are for sleeping
3. Don't try too hard
4. Keep a schedule
5. No depressants
(Rational thinking and Controlled behavior)
Stop breathing for half a min or more
Primary cause: Obesity
More common in Men
device worn on nose to open passages
Surgery to remove uvula and soft tissue
Sleep Apnea in Infants
Due to immature brain stem.
Monitor with alarm
Associated with SIDS
Sudden REM sleep
Excessive daytime sleepiness
Cataplexy: loss of muscle tone
conflicts, events, desires of the past are represented in symbolic form in dreams
Manifest Content-it is what it is in the dream
Latent Content-dream content is symbolic for something else.
A dream is merely another kind of thinking that occurs when people sleep.
Unrealistic, bizarre due to frontal lobe inactive
Signals are random, not from actual external stimuli.
PET scan shows the pons produces dreams
Can dreams have meaning??
Revised the activation-synthesis hypothesis to reflect dream meaning.
info accessed when awake can influence dreams
What would you expect to see on the EEG record of a person who is engaged in an episode of sleepwalking?
a) paradoxical sleep waves
b) very large sleep spindles
c) evidence of deep sleep (stage 4)
d) a record that is virtually the same as a daydreaming person
Dreaming: Gender & Cultural Differences
Males: men, agression, outdoors, weapons, tools, sex with unknown attractive partners
Females: men, women, victim, people they know, family, appearance concerns.
50% of dreams have sexual content...
many people dream of being naked in public.
State of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion.
1. Told to focus on what's said.
2. Told to relax and feel tired.
3. Told to "let go" and accept suggestion easily.
4. Told to use vivid imagination.
Key is to be open to suggestion!!
The hypnotized person is in control!
Basic Suggestion Effect:
do things you wouldn't really do if you couldn't blame it on someone else.
Hypnosis as Treatment:
cope with anxiety
control food/drug cravings
Theories of Hypnosis
Hypnosis as Dissociation
Hypnosis as Social Role-Playing
"The Hidden Observer"
The conscious mind is being hypnotized.
The unconscious is aware of whats going on.
People are not actually in an altered state, but play the role expected of them in the situation.
Drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory.
Body is unable to function normally without the drug.
Drug Tolerance: larger doses are needed to achieve the same initial effect.
Withdrawal: headaches, nausea, irritability, pain, cramping, shaking, high B/P.
Belief that drug is needed for emotional or psychological well being
Any drug cause psychological dependence.
There are no physical withdrawal symptoms.
The effect of the drug depends on the category to which it belongs and what neurotransmitter it affects.
Increased functioning of nervous system. "Uppers"
Stimulants made in a lab
"Crystal Meth" is the crystalline form that can be smoked
Can be used for ADHD, narcolepsy, weight loss under strict medical supervision.
The crash is inevitable. Easily build tolerance.
Can be toxic or deadly.
nausea, vomiting, high B/P, stroke and amphetamine psychosis (delusional, paranoid, leads to violence.)
Natural drug found in coca plant leaves.
Produces feeling of euphoria, energy, power, pleasure.
Deadens pain, Suppresses appetite.
Even with first use: convulsions, death.
Devastating effects for babies born to cocaine addicts.
Lab rats will die of starvation
if cocaine is available.
Withdrawal : depression, extreme tiredness, nervousness, inability to feel pleasure, paranoia.
Brain craves cocaine due to chemical changes.
3 signs of physical dependence:
1. compulsive use
2. loss of control
3. disregard for consequences
less pure. cheaper
Produces addiction in 100% of people who use it.
Mild, but toxic stimulant
Overall % of people smoking
Causes addiction in 99% of people who use it.
Most effective way to quit: delayed smoking.
Natural substance found in coffee, tea, plant-based substances
Helps maintain alertness
Increases effectiveness of pain relievers
Psychoactive drugs that slow the CNS.
Very addictive. Easy tolerance. Serious withdrawal.
Drug Interaction: Deadly with Alcohol
Used to lower anxiety and reduce stress.
Valium, Xanax, Ativan, Librium
Can be addictive,
dangerous in large doses,
drug interactions could still be deadly
Most common used and abused depressant.
Disorders caused by alcoholism:
Korsakoff's syndrome-dementia due to B1 deficiency.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Alcohol causes brain to release GABA (major depressant)
Social inhibitions are depressed.
Motor skills, reaction time, and speech are all affected.
suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating release of endorphins.
All narcotics are derived from opium
Made from the opium poppy
used by ladies in the Victorian Era
used for medicine in 1800's
used for teething in the 1900's
Created by dissolving opium in acid then neutralizing it with ammonia.
Still used today
Derivative of morphine
fewer side effects
No longer used as medicine
derivative of opium
no euphoric effect
used to treat heroin withdrawal
brain alters its interpretation of sensations
hallucinations: false sensory perceptions
"acid" Most potent hallucinogen
depending on dosage, can be in any drug category.
used as animal tranquilizer.
can lead to violence or suicide.
Native American rituals
hallucinogenic effects last longer than LSD
most commonly abused hallucinogenic drug.
leaves and flowers of hemp plant