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Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs

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on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs

Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, and Drugs
Sleep Disorders
Awareness of everything going on around you and inside your own head at any given moment.

You use this to organize your behavior, including thoughts, sensations, and feelings.
Waking Consciousness:
awake with thoughts, feelings, and sensations clear and organized. You feel alert.

Shift in the quality or pattern of your mental activity.
Biological rhythms->Sleep-Wake Cycle->Circadian Rhythm
Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (Internal Clock)
Sensitive to light.
When light fades, tells the pineal gland to secrete melatonin.
High melatonin=sleepy
Jet Lag
Shift Work
Melatonin Supplements
Other influences of Sleep
Body Temperature
low temp=sleepy
high temp=alert
Not Sleeping??
Microsleeps: Brief sleeping, lasting only a few

Missing one night of sleep?
simply task may be difficult
complex task are unaffected
Sleep Deprivation
trembling hands
staring off into space
droopy eyelids
general discomfort
Theories of Sleep
Why do we sleep WHEN we sleep??
Adaptive Theory: Evolution. Predator/Prey

Why do we NEED to sleep??
Restoration Theory: Growth, repair, replenish.

Most adults need 7-9 hours per night
Short sleepers need 4-5
Long sleepers need over 9.
REM: active, dreaming, can't move
Non-REM: deeper, restful, movement

EEG-brain wave activity
Beta waves-small and fast
Alpha waves-longer, slower
Theta waves-even longer, slower
Delta waves-longest and slowest
Awake, alert: Beta Waves
Awake, relaxed: Alpha Waves

Theta waves will begin to replace Alpha waves....

Stage 1
Theta Waves

Usually unaware of sleeping

hypnagogic images (as you are falling asleep)
hypnopompic images (as you are waking up)

hypnic jerk
Stage 2
Theta Waves
Sleep Spindles: EEG shows quick burst of activity
Spindles are also known as "K Complexes"
Aware you are sleeping
Stage 3
10%-50% Delta Waves
Stage 4
50%+ Delta Waves
Deepest stage of sleep
GH released from Pituitary
Stage 1,2,3,4,3,2,REM
Body temp increases
eyes move rapidly under eyelids
heart beats much faster
brain waves resemble beta waves

90% of dreaming is during REM
REM paralysis
REM rebound

Infant REM is different.
longer and no paralysis
Nightmares: bad dreams. more likely in kids.

REM Behavior Disorder: Rare, usually in men over 60.
Inhibition of voluntary muscle movement FAILS.
Able to act out nightmares.
Stage 4 Sleep Disorders
20% of population
More common in boys
No memory of it
Night Terrors
State of panic while sound asleep
May move, scream
No memory of it
Inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get good quality sleep.

Helpful hints to combat insomnia.
1. Sleepy, go to bed
2. Beds are for sleeping
3. Don't try too hard
4. Keep a schedule
5. No depressants

Cognitive-behavior Therapy
(Rational thinking and Controlled behavior)
Sleep Apnea
Stop breathing for half a min or more
Primary cause: Obesity
More common in Men

device worn on nose to open passages
throat spray
Surgery to remove uvula and soft tissue

Sleep Apnea in Infants
Due to immature brain stem.
Monitor with alarm
Associated with SIDS

"Sleep Seizure"
Sudden REM sleep
Excessive daytime sleepiness
Cataplexy: loss of muscle tone
Hypnogogic images
conflicts, events, desires of the past are represented in symbolic form in dreams

Manifest Content-it is what it is in the dream
Latent Content-dream content is symbolic for something else.
Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis
A dream is merely another kind of thinking that occurs when people sleep.
Unrealistic, bizarre due to frontal lobe inactive
Signals are random, not from actual external stimuli.
PET scan shows the pons produces dreams

Can dreams have meaning??
Activation-Information-Mode model
Revised the activation-synthesis hypothesis to reflect dream meaning.

info accessed when awake can influence dreams
Review Question

What would you expect to see on the EEG record of a person who is engaged in an episode of sleepwalking?
a) paradoxical sleep waves
b) very large sleep spindles
c) evidence of deep sleep (stage 4)
d) a record that is virtually the same as a daydreaming person

Dreaming: Gender & Cultural Differences

Males: men, agression, outdoors, weapons, tools, sex with unknown attractive partners

Females: men, women, victim, people they know, family, appearance concerns.

50% of dreams have sexual content...
many people dream of being naked in public.

State of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion.
4 Steps
1. Told to focus on what's said.
2. Told to relax and feel tired.
3. Told to "let go" and accept suggestion easily.
4. Told to use vivid imagination.
Key is to be open to suggestion!!
The hypnotized person is in control!
Basic Suggestion Effect:
do things you wouldn't really do if you couldn't blame it on someone else.
Hypnosis as Treatment:

help relax
control pain
cope with anxiety
control food/drug cravings

Theories of Hypnosis
Hypnosis as Dissociation
Hypnosis as Social Role-Playing
"The Hidden Observer"
The conscious mind is being hypnotized.
The unconscious is aware of whats going on.
Social-Cognitive Explanation
People are not actually in an altered state, but play the role expected of them in the situation.
Drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory.
Physical Dependency
Body is unable to function normally without the drug.
Drug Tolerance: larger doses are needed to achieve the same initial effect.

Withdrawal: headaches, nausea, irritability, pain, cramping, shaking, high B/P.
Psychological Dependency
Belief that drug is needed for emotional or psychological well being
Any drug cause psychological dependence.
There are no physical withdrawal symptoms.
Drug Categories
The effect of the drug depends on the category to which it belongs and what neurotransmitter it affects.
Increased functioning of nervous system. "Uppers"
Stimulants made in a lab
"Crystal Meth" is the crystalline form that can be smoked
Can be used for ADHD, narcolepsy, weight loss under strict medical supervision.
The crash is inevitable. Easily build tolerance.
Can be toxic or deadly.
nausea, vomiting, high B/P, stroke and amphetamine psychosis (delusional, paranoid, leads to violence.)
Natural drug found in coca plant leaves.
Produces feeling of euphoria, energy, power, pleasure.
Deadens pain, Suppresses appetite.
Very Addictive!!
Even with first use: convulsions, death.
Devastating effects for babies born to cocaine addicts.
Lab rats will die of starvation
if cocaine is available.
Physical Dependency
Withdrawal : depression, extreme tiredness, nervousness, inability to feel pleasure, paranoia.
Brain craves cocaine due to chemical changes.
3 signs of physical dependence:
1. compulsive use
2. loss of control
3. disregard for consequences
Crack Cocaine

less pure. cheaper

Produces addiction in 100% of people who use it.
Mild, but toxic stimulant
Overall % of people smoking
women teens
Causes addiction in 99% of people who use it.
Most effective way to quit: delayed smoking.
Mild Stimulant
Natural substance found in coffee, tea, plant-based substances
Helps maintain alertness
Increases effectiveness of pain relievers
Psychoactive drugs that slow the CNS.
Major Tranquilizers
Sleeping Pills
Very addictive. Easy tolerance. Serious withdrawal.
Drug Interaction: Deadly with Alcohol
Minor Tranquilizers
Used to lower anxiety and reduce stress.
Valium, Xanax, Ativan, Librium
Can be addictive,
dangerous in large doses,
drug interactions could still be deadly
Most common used and abused depressant.
Disorders caused by alcoholism:
Liver Disease
Korsakoff's syndrome-dementia due to B1 deficiency.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Heart Disease
Alcohol causes brain to release GABA (major depressant)
Social inhibitions are depressed.
Motor skills, reaction time, and speech are all affected.

suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating release of endorphins.
All narcotics are derived from opium
Made from the opium poppy
pain relieving

used by ladies in the Victorian Era
used for medicine in 1800's
used for teething in the 1900's
Created by dissolving opium in acid then neutralizing it with ammonia.

Wonder Drug

VERY addictive
Still used today
Derivative of morphine
fewer side effects
More addictive

No longer used as medicine

derivative of opium
no euphoric effect
used to treat heroin withdrawal
brain alters its interpretation of sensations
hallucinations: false sensory perceptions
Manufactured Highs


Nonmanufactured Highs


"acid" Most potent hallucinogen
depending on dosage, can be in any drug category.
used as animal tranquilizer.
can lead to violence or suicide.
stimulatory hallucinogen
"Ecstasy" "X"
stimulatory hallucinogen
Native American rituals
hallucinogenic effects last longer than LSD
"Magic Mushrooms"
most commonly abused hallucinogenic drug.
leaves and flowers of hemp plant
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