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Why the Treaty Now? Student Version
Transcript of Why the Treaty Now? Student Version
Year 10 Social Studies
We are going to read a book together. Please take your time and enjoy the pictures. The book is called The Rabbits and is written by John Marsden and illustrated by Shaun Tan. We will read it twice.
Openness to change
Tahi: draw this grid in your book - why not make it a page.
Lesson Two & Three
The first people to reach New Zealand were Polynesians who set out from the central Pacific on deliberate voyages of discovery in large waka. They reached land, in the south-west corner of the Pacific, between 1200 and 1300 AD. This land came to be known as 'New Zealand' about 500 years later.
The English explorer James Cook established that the land Tasman had "discovered" was in fact two large islands. This remarkably accurate map Cook drew of New Zealand after his first circumnavigation of the islands in 1769–70 was a marvel of cartography. But he did make a couple of mistakes, can you spot them?
Which means the Maori were in New Zealand for at least 500 years before Captain Cook showed up. If we went back 500 years from now we would be living in the time before Shakespeare was born.
We are looking at what happened when the Treaty was signed, and at the different perspectives people had about the Treaty.
Even in 1840 people disagreed over the Treaty on both sides
"All dealings with the natives for their lands must be conducted on the same principles of sincerity, justice and good faith as must govern your transactions with them for the recognition of Her Majesty's sovereignty in the Islands. Nor is that all: they must not be permitted to enter into any contracts in which they might be ignorant and unintentional authors of injuries to themselves."
In 1839 Lord Normanby sent Captain Hobson to New Zealand to make a treaty with the Maori. Here is part of what he said:
Captain William Hobson
He was a captain in the British navy and had no experience in writing treaties or in the law. In 1840 he arrived in the Bay of Islands of New Zealand with Lord Normanby's instructions.
We're going to watch a drama over the next two lessons. To begin please draw this:
After Captain Cook put New Zealand 'on the map' other ships from Europe and America soon followed looking for trade opportunities.
Pre-1840 Aotearoa NZ was a Maori world. But changes were occurring due to relationships with whalers, missionaries, and the British Empire.
These changes and relationships help explain why a treaty was signed in 1840.
Whose perspective is this book written from? Why do you think this?
Here's what Cook's artist, Sydney Parkinson, thought a Maori looked like, though the name Maori wasn't used: the drawing is called 'portrait of a New Zealander'.
When each person is introduced in the film write down information about their position
In here, write down what they think of the idea of a treaty
TASK: what words in the quote below prove the statement above
Click on the link to see the film:
Changing perspectives & flag pole chopping
You will see six slides soon, copy the names down
WHAT: We are going to focus on Hone Heke - his perspective and his actions after signing the treaty.
WHY: Heke shows us that perspectives can change, often rapidly.
1. Re-cap Heke's perspective in the drama: Why did he sign it - what were his expectations?
2. Watch this clip (up to 3.2o mins). Note down:
Maori expectations following the treaty
Governor expectations following the treaty
Why Heke chose to attack a flag pole
"Governor, you are the representative of the Queen by whom you were sent. ... I shall write to her ... to restore to us the sovereignty of our island... I have heard she is a good woman, and that she will not desire that our land shall be purchased with the blood of the soldiers and of the natives."
“…God made this country for us. It cannot be sliced; if it were a whale it might be sliced. Do you return to your own country, which was made by God for you? God made this land for us; it is not for any stranger or foreign nation to meddle with this sacred country.”
"The Treaty of Waitangi is all soap. It is very smooth and oily, but treachery is hidden under it."
Heke's changing perspective
"Governor, you should stay with us and be like a father.
If you go away, then the French and the rum sellers will take us Maori over."
"Where is the protection offered by the treaty? Where is the good will of England? Is it in her great guns... her rockets... [or] in the curses of Englishmen and their adulteries. Is it shown in their calling us slaves... or their regard for our sacred places? The Europeans taunt us... If you demand our land, where are we to go to?"
Two versions of the Treaty
TASK: draw a scroll like this one. We are going to watch a clip called 'Texts' twice. Whilst watching, write down:
Any issues with the translation
Solutions to the issues
look at the treaties in your drive and highlight the key words in each article
- Cede (give up) Soveriegnty to the Queen
- The Queen gives Maori "full , exclusive and undisturbed possession of their lands, estates, forests, fisheries and other properties."
- Right of pre-emption (= The Crown gets first dibs on land being sold).
- Queen gives "all the rights and privileges of the British".
- Maori cede (give up) Kawanatanga (governership).
- Maori have their tino rangatiratanga (Chieftanship - right to make rules/laws for their own tribal lands) protected over all their lands, villages and taonga katoa (all their treasures).
- Queen offers Maori the same protection and rights of citizenship as the people of England.
WHAT YOU THINK IT MEANS
Back off or I'll call your boss. I hear that she doesn't want war and will give us our land
"Heke's initial view of the treaty was..."
TASK: summarise your understanding by completing one (or more) of the tasks below finishing these sentence starters
"Hello, my name is Chief Justice Prendergast. I was the chief judge in New Zealand from 1875 until 1899"
A Maori King
What: that some Maori groups joined together to crown a King in response to loss of land/sovereignty
Why: The King movement (Te Kingitanga) is an example of Maori
and is a good place to look at
The first King was Te Wherowhero, a chief from Waikato who had fought in the musket wars who carried lots of mana.
In 1860 Te Wherowhero died and this man, Tawhiao, became the 2nd King.
Here is todays King sitting on his throne. His name is Tuheitia Paki
Choose an image(s) from this collage that you think best sums up the perspectives around Te Kingitanga. Think about what Maori hoped the King would achieve VS what settlers and the government thought about it.
"I am called the king, not for the purpose of separation, but in order that the natives might be united as one race, ever acknowledging the supremacy of the Queen and claiming her protection."
"Kotahi te kohao o te ngira e kuhuna te miro ma, te miro pango, te mira Whero”
"There is but one eye of the needle that the white, black and red threads must pass "
When he was crowned he said...
what does it mean?
He also said...
What does this mean?
Why might he say this?
[therefore] rights [go to] the first
occupier of a territory thinly peopled by barbarians without any form of law or civil government.
So far as [the Treaty seemed to give away]
... it must be regarded as a simple
. No [group] existed capable of [giving away] sovereignty.
On the foundation of this colony, the [Maori] were found without any kind of civil government, or any settled system of law.... The Maori tribes were incapable of performing the duties, and therefore of assuming the rights, of a
there existed amongst the [Maori] no... definite ideas of property in land...
In 1877, I made an important decision in a court case in New Zealand.
The court case was called Wi Parata vs Bishop of Wellington
This is Wiremu Parata. He was born in the 1830s, and in the 1870s was a member of parliament.
In 1848 Ngati Toa made a verbal agreement with the Anglican church that they could use a piece of Ngati Toa land at Witireia (Whitireia) to build a school to educate the young of Ngati Toa.
At W(h)itireia now there is a polytech
This is Octavius Hadfield. In 1877 he was the Bishop of Wellington.
The Anglican Church never built a school on the land, but the Crown still gave them ownership of the land.
Wiremu Parata took Bishop Hadfield to court. He felt that the land should be given back to Ngati Toa.
Wiremu Parata lost his case.
Judge Prendergast decided that the church could keep the land.
Here are some of the things that Prendergast said:
Obviously this was bad news for Parata and Ngati Toa.
It was also bad news for all Maori because Prendergast's decision was used for the next 100 years to assist the crown in taking land from Maori in disputes.
(when the Treaty was signed)
These colours come from the story of creation. The black represents "Te Po" the darkness, the red represents the blood that was spilt and the white represents "Te Ao Marama" - the light.
This was how the king imagined Maori and Pakeha working together. One stick in the ground was the Pakeha Governor. The other stick was the Maori king. The top stick was the law of God and Queen.
GOD & QUEEN
Lesson TWo and Three
What was this protest about?
How is the importance of land to the Maori explained?
(clip one from start to 2'15")
What is his perspective?
Clip One from 7'32"
Explain the significance of the po whenua
Clip two from 4'40" to 6'00"
What does this woman say about place names, resources and education?
Clip three from 7'30" to the end
What is Joe Hawke's view?
Clip two from start to 4'40"
What does Whina Cooper think the Matakite should become?
(Clip five, from start to end)
From the 1860s to the 1880s there were the New Zealand Wars that saw a lot of land confiscated off different Maori Iwi as punishment for participating in wars.
In addition there were laws passed that allowed the government to take land for Public Works, like building roads. The Public Works Act of 1928 is a famous example of this.
The results of this are clear:
In 1975 Whina Cooper led a land march from the far north to Wellington to protest the continuing loss of Maori land. They stopped at 25 marae along the way, and gathered 60,000 signatures for a petition. This is a documentary about the march.
Please fill in the worksheet as we go through parts of this documentary.
What: not long after the land march another major event occurred concerning land at a place called BASTION POINT (Orakei). This didn't involve people walking, rather people peacefully occupied a piece of land for 506 days, triggering a massive confrontation with government and police.
Bastion Point is in Auckland
"The shadow of the land goes to the Queen, but the substance remains with us."
Nopera Panakareao, 1840 on signing Te Tiriti.
"The Maori has lost the substance of the land and retains only the shadow. The government must settle old grievances so that Maori can close their eyes to the past.
Sir Apirana Ngata, 1940, 100 years after the signing.
CHANGING REALITIES / CHANGING PERSPECTIVES
A brief timeline of events
Ngati Whatua chief, Te Kawau, provided Governor Hobson 3,000 acres of land on which Auckland city quickly grew.
Crown take land away from Iwi for defence purposes (against possible Russian attack).
Native Land Court divides up communal land at Bastion Point (meaning very small titles for individual Ngati Whatua tribal members).
A sewerage pipe is laid in front of Bastion Point, pumping sewerage into Okahu Bay, which is used for kai moana.
Crown evict families from the land and the meeting house and homes are burned down.
The government plans to subdivide the head land lead to the land occupation. Ngati Whatua had the right to have the land returned to them if it was no longer being used for defence purposes (1859).
So...they were the people of Auckland but by 1977 they had no marae of their own in which to welcome visitors or grieve for the dead.
We are going to watch a documentary that looks at the history of Bastion Point, including the occupation protest of 1977-78.
Name of Iwi: Ngati Whatua
Key leader: Joe Hawke
What was "boot hill"?
Clip two 5'25'' to end
what was the relationship between these men?
Clip one 5'50''
What was the importance of the land march according to Ranginui Walker?
Clip three 4'16'' - 5'00''
As a police officer, what did Matanuku feel about being at Bastion Point?
Clip four 8'15'' - end
What are the different perspectives about the outcomes for Ngati Whatua?
(Clip five from start to end)
You are going to be given a number from one to six.
All the odd numbers are kangaroos. All the even numbers are rabbits.
All the rabbits need to sit on one side of the class, and all the kangaroos on the other.
At the start of this unit we read a book called The Rabbits. We're going to look at it again. First we need to make new groups.
The kangaroos can now make three groups. All the ones are Baba tribe. All the threes are Narnoo tribe. All the fives are Tamara tribe. These words mean water, sand and fire wood.
The rabbits can now make three groups. All the twos are missionaries. All the fours are settlers. All the sixes are representatives of the Rabbit Queen back in Rabbit land. Look at the card for your group.
We are going to read the first part of the book again, and I want you to look at the pictures carefully and decide what it is your group values, what your culture has to offer, and what your culture wants.
In your group:
Take out a copy of the Treaty wheel
Decide what are two or three things that are most important to you on this wheel as a group
Write these down as sentences, and do it four times so that everyone in the group has their own copy of it
Making a Treaty
Form the tables in your class into four groups
Each table will have some scrap paper, and a piece of A3
At each table should be at least one person from each of the six groups
Each person should have a list of the three things that are most important to them.
You have 30 minutes to make a Treaty between Rabbit and Kangaroo. You CANNOT go over 30 minutes, and the final version must be on the A3 sheet.
YOU WILL ONLY ACHIEVE THIS IF YOU COMPROMISE
And the winner is...
One person from each large group will read out their Treaty
You will vote on which Treaty you believe would be the fairest and most likely to succeed
That Treaty will compete against the best Treaty from each Year 10 Social Studies class
The overall winners will receive a cheaply made certificate and ... chocolate?
STARTER: Question the picture
What can you see?
What does it mean?
copy and complete the chart in your books
Changes over the course of the story
write down- The source: 'The Rabbits' by Shaun Tan and John Marsden
This unit is about the Treaty of Waitangi.
Why do you think we have looked at The Rabbits?
How does it connect to the Treaty?
Book Analysis: The Rabbits
Plenary: discuss with the people around you what you think the rabbit and the kangaroo are thinking in this picture.
Migration- contact -change
Today we're looking at:
how people arrived in NZ
what contact occurred between different groups
what changes occurred from contact
A story of migration
Rua: brainstorm what you know about each of these categories. Think/pair/share.
Watch CD Rom twice. First time do not write anything, just watch. Second viewing note down any key bullet points.
Describe what he looks like.
What do you think the artist thought of him?
Why was a Treaty made?
(check your notes)
Openness to change
Using new concepts
Complete the missionary grid and write a paragraph using the words from the 'Missionaries' grid above.
Complete the 'Openness to change; grid by choosing 4 concepts and write a paragraph using these
Write a paragraph using the words from either the Muskets or Whalers grid above,
Instructions: Use your notes from the CD ROM. and choose one of following tasks to complete
put yourself in their shoes. Why was a treaty a good idea?
Ki te kahore he whakakitenga ka ngaro te iwi – Without foresight or vision the people will be lost
Lord Normanby represented the British Crown (government). The main point of his statement below is that a treaty must be fair and understood by each side.
STARTER: above is a whakatauki or proverb.
What does the proverb mean to you?
How could this proverb relate to the treaty?
Whose perspective do you agree with the most and why? Explain your answer to your neighbour.
"When I first heard 'Kia ora' I understood it to mean hello. Then I heard it used to acknowledge good effort. I've also heard it used as 'thank you'. Literally it means 'be well'"
what does the above statement mean for translating an idea from one language to another?
This week we will look at:
That there are different versions of the Treaty
Different versions meant different understandings and expectations
Key points of translation
On the post-it given to you, write down any questions you have about...
anything about this topic so far
Two versions of the Treaty
Title Page: 'The Treaty Now'
plus provides key dates, people, places and facts about the Treaty of Waitangi.
'Rua' criteria plus provides and explains (could annotate) the aspects of Maori and British Culture during the period of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.
Title page has pictures and words related to the Treaty of Waitangi
Task: for homework you are to create a title page for our topic, including the words 'Why the Treaty Now?'. Use the below criteria to guide you on what to include on your title page
choose 2 highlighted words and say why you chose them (why they're 'key' terms)
'Having two versions of one treaty creates difficulties. Did you know that under international law the indigenous version of the treaty is given priority'. To what extent do you agree with this approach?
Complete one or more of the tasks below:
STARTER: this is our concept wheel for the topic. Discuss with your neighbour what the words mean. Are there any words that you are unfamiliar with or dont understand?
TASK: in groups, complete the table above
"Heke changed his perspective because..."
"The consequences for his changing perspectives were..."
"Hone Heke was cool for giving it a go and he was right to lose faith in the British"
"Heke was arrogant to think that the British would treat Maori as equals"
"Heke was interested in wealth and power"
discuss with a neighbour, which of these perspectives best reflects your opinion of Hone Heke
In 1858 some Maori groups joined together to crown a King in response to loss of land/sovereignty.
We're going to look at a short clip about the King Movement called 'why settle' to get an idea about the King Movement
Complete one of the activities below
TASK: whilst watching the clip, copy and complete the table
What did the King Movement want?
what did the settler government believe?
what did new settlers want?
The concept of...relates to the King movement because...
Explain how 'partnership' relates to the King movement?
describe how 1 of the concepts relates to the King movement?
The concept of partnership relates to the King movement because...
Power is the most important concept behind the King Movement' To what extent do you agree with this statement?
I somewhat agree/ agree/ strongly agree with the
What does a crown symbolise?
what does having a Queen/ King mean for a country?
Perspectives on the Treaty
will be able to identify several people involved in the treaty
will be able to describe the perspectives of several people involved in the Treaty
will be able to compare different perspectives on the Treaty
The nature of early contact
will be able to describe how muskets affected Maori life
will be able to explain how missionaries and whalers affected Maori life
will be able to examine the impact of early contact on Maori and their relationship with Europeans
What is it to be 'civilised'?
from 'null'- null and void
Is this statement what the writers of the treaty intended?
Task 3: choose 1 or the options below to complete
Describe how Prendergast's perspective on power goes against the principles of the Treaty (Principles: partnership, protection, participation)
You are Wi Parata's lawyer. Explain how Wi Parata would have used the Treaty to make his case for the land at Witireia to be returned?
Describe how Prendergast's perspective shows the concept of 'discrimination'
how would tribes feel about the relationship with the Crown after Prendergast's ruling
What can you see? List 5 things
What can you infer? (what can you read into the picture)
What questions do you have?
Why the Treaty Now?
What do you see?
What do you infer?
What questions do you have?
Task 3: choose 1 or the options below to complete
100 years later, what does Ngata say has happened? Use evidence in your answer.
Ngata believes the government must settle old grievances. To what extent do you agree with this? Justify your decision.
What does Panakareao believe happened at the signing of the Treaty in 1840. What is your evidence?
why might it be important for Maori to close their eyes to the past? Justify your answer.
35 years later...
Task 3: choose 1 or the options below to complete
Put yourself in the shoes of one of the marchers, how would it feel? Support your answer with evidence from the video and concepts from the wheel.
What do you think the effect of this land march would have on the government and the New Zealand public?
Describe what type of response the land march was to the NZ government (crown)?
Why a march?
WHAT: This lesson will look at how the Treaty went from being our founding document to not being recognised in the courts of law. Then we will look at responses to that situation.
Is marching an effective form of protest?
The people marching see the land march?
The government see the land march?
The general public see the land march?
What do you see?
What do you infer?
What questions do you have?
If you were Ngati Whatua in 1977 how would you feel and what would you like to happen?
Plenary: in pairs, discuss how Ngati Whatua's protest illustrated one or more of these concepts
Can you relate the government response to a concept(s)?
In the early 1970s, the government recognised that something was needed to restore good relationships between the Crown and Māori.
In 1975, it established the Waitangi Tribunal, a permanent commission of inquiry to start working through Māori concerns.
Who or where do you go when you feel you have been treated unfairly?
Who or where can Māori groups go when they feel they have been treated unfairly?
Why do you think the government created the tribunal?
On the post it given to you, write:
what (if anything) you already know about the tribunal
what questions you have about the tribunal?
Maori response: Bastion Point
will be able to describe why Bastion point became an issue of protest for Maori
will be able to explain different perspectives on the protest
will be able to evaluate the significance of Bastion Point
The Waitangi Tribunal
will be able to describe what the Waitangi Tribunal is
will be able to explain why the Waitangi Tribunal was formed
will explain the significance of the Waitangi Tribunal for Maori
Let's learn about the Tribunal....
The land march as a response to land confiscation
will be able to state what the land protest was about
will be able to describe different perspectives on the protest
will explain the significance of the protest
THE WAITANGI TRIBUNAL
SOME KEY WORDS:
to break something
Commission of inquiry:
a group that looks into an issue
The putting right of something that is wrong.
What is the job of the tribunal?
What are some of the things that the Crown has admitted it did that
A question you have about Treaty Settlements is...
Discuss: What role do you think the Treaty should have in Aotearoa New Zealand's future?
A question you have about the tribunal is...
Lets watch a clip from USA
How did the black woman respond? Why did she respond this way?
What messages can you take from this interview?
How would you describe the perspective of the checkout woman towards the black woman?
Okay, before we go on, let's look at the Treaty/te Tiriti text again. Highlight where you see reference to land. What does it say about Maori land?
The Maori King Movement
will be able to describe what the King Movement was
will be able to explain why the King Movement came about
will be able to explain how the King Movement showed resistance and the settler government response to the movement
Tell your neighbour:
1. One reason Maori participated in the Land March in 1975
2. One consequence for Maori today of what has happened to them in the past
3. Why resolving the land issue for Maori is difficult
How much do you understand about the land March: what it was and why Maori decided to engage in this protest
I completely understand
I kind of understand
I dont really understand
TASK: draw the smiley face that represents your understanding
Land March continued
What is happening in this picture? What do you think?
Today we will be looking at the 2004 Don Brash Orewa Speech called 'Nationhood'
because it deals with different
The speech addressed the theme of
in New Zealand and in particular the special status of Māori people.
The Orewa Speech was a speech delivered by the then-leader of the New Zealand National Party Don Brash to the Orewa Rotary Club on 27 January 2004.
We are going to watch a bit of the Orewa Speech now...
After we have watched the clip, answer the following questions:
We are now going to see the Government's
to the Orewa Speech.
After we have watched the clip, answer the following question:
We're going to watch one more clip...
After watching answer the following question:
From what you have learned today,
do you agree
with Don Brash's speech about having 'one rule for all?'
Is it a good thing that there are Maori targeted programmes to help Maori in education and health? Why or why not?
Use at least one concept from your concept wheel in your answer.
(clip 2, start to 8.58mins)
(15.03 to 15.55 mins)
(15.56 to 17.09)
What is happening here? How is it different from the animals climbing the tree test?
Setting the scene
does the speech want to invoke (spark) in Pakeha people? Why?
what does Don Brash mean by Maori get
what does Don Brash mean by
'one rule for all'
do you think it was ok that Maori targeted programmes and grants to help improve Maori education and health were cut by the Government?
Saying Maori get 'special privileges' is wrong according to Moana Jackson.
what can we infer from this?
Why has this happened?
TVNZ seems to have removed the clip so click on this clip and to watch the subsequent clips, type 'What really happened at waitangi' into youtube and work your way through the 7 remaining short clips.
Land of a Thousand Lovers