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Introduction to Drama

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Kat Pinnell

on 20 December 2018

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Transcript of Introduction to Drama

Devising with Brecht
INTRODUCTION TO BRECHT
Learning Objective: To explore the legacy of Bertolt Brecht and devise with his influence
DEVISING WITH BRECHT
SPASS
SPASS translates in to 'fun.' Brecht addressed and explored political topics to develop 'Epic Theatre' but he also wanted the audience to be entertained and to think. Brecht incorporated comedy using song and dance, slapstick and black comedy to highlight issues....
EVALUATION
Your evaluation is worth 15 marks of this component.
Introduction to Drama...
Learning Objective: To develop trust and teamwork within the group
PLACARDS
Placards is a simple but effective technique in communicating subtext to your audience. It is an alternative method of directly addressing the audience and giving them information regarding characters, the plot and your political topic.
The Drama Space
Stop, Start, Clap, Jump
Elbow Partner
Ladders
Pass the Squeeze
Alphabetical, DOB,
Human knot
In today's lesson you will take part in a range of games that will test your team-work skills. There will be a team A & B, what time will win the glory of winning?!
Stepping up to GCSE Drama it is crucial that you treat others and their art with respect and support.

Neutral position enables actors to stay focused, remain centered and creates a blank canvas.

Leave your ego and problems at the door.

Prepare to be pushed.
ACTIVATE
CONSOLIDATE
AGREE
DISAGREE
I chose drama because it's a doss subject
I chose drama because it's easy
I believe that student's shouldn't have to wear uniform
I don't think my teachers take me seriously
I hope to have a future career in drama
I believe that corporal punishment should be reinstated
I chose drama because it's a doss subject
I believe that eating meat is wrong
Stimulus
Learning Objective: To develop our understanding of how we can respond to stimulus
DELIBERATE
What is stimulus?
What forms can stimulus take?
How can we use stimulus to create drama?
What must we consider to make excellent performances?




S
c
r
A
m
ETTING
HARACTER
ELATIONSHIP
TMOSPHERE
EANING
w
w
w
w
w
HO
HAT
HERE
HEN
HY
INTIAL IDEAS
OPTION 1
OPTION 2
MOTIVATE
What is a soundscape?!
What sounds can be heard in the setting?
What line of dialogue might a character say?
What sound effects could you use?
How can you create the atmosphere?
You must develop a soundscape for your piece. It must represent what an audience may expect to hear from your performance. An excellent soundscape could use:
ACCELERATE
Enhance your soundscape by creating staging for the sound. Think about:
How can you create tension?
How can you demonstrate character?
How you can tell your story through the staging and sound?
Crescendo
Repetition
Canon
Diminuendo
Echo
Repetition
Sound effects
Silence
Volume
Whisper
CONSOLIDATE
You must consolidate your concept and present your idea to the rest of the group. Use your mind-maps to structure your presentation. Think about:
Story
Target Audience
Setting/Where
Characters/Who
Meaning/Why
Style
Title
GUNS
FIGHTING
Realistic Characters
Relatable Concept
MURDER
Plausible
Meaning
Relevant
Varied mood
STAGE SLAP
UNNECESSARY SCENE CHANGES
WEAPONS
INSIDE JOKES
THEATRICAL DEVICES
Unison
INSENSITIVITY
CELEBRATE
DELIBERATE
What 2 ways could we start to brainstorm a response to stimulus?
What theatrical device did we use last lesson to devise our performance?
What can a soundscape create for an audience?
What techniques can we use to make a soundscape excellent?
MOTIVATE
In today's lesson you will focus on developing movement for your performance...
"I'm me, you're you and this is the space..."
Levels
Distance
Direction
Eye line and Contact
Posture/Stance
What are proxemics?
The branch of knowledge that deals with the amount of space that people feel it necessary to set between themselves and others.
Flock of Birds
Observe, how can this exercise tell a story?

How can it communicate character relationship?

How could you use this to tell your story?
ACTIVATE
You must create your own movement sequence to illustrate a part of your story. It could represent:
Character relationships
Event
Status
Individual
Techniques you could use:
Canon
Unison
Gestures
Pause
Repetition
Mirroring
Contact

News paper article
Video (youtube, buzzfeed, lad bible)
Films
Documentaries
Books
Case-studies
Music/Songs
Poetry
Sayings/phrases/expression
Artwork
Photographs
Corporations
Traditions
Events
HOME LEARNING
You must each bring to next lesson a piece of research that you feel is relevant to your concept. This could be:
Who's soundscape was awesome?

Who created tension?

What soundscape told a story?

What soundscape demonstrated character?
ACCELERATE
Incorporate lines of poignant dialogue to illustrate what is happening in you're movement. (Keep it simple!)

Try to create more than one movement piece to perform at the same time!

Choose music to accompany your movement sequences
DELIBERATE
What is characterisation?
How can we create an effective character?
What characters have you seen that astounded you?
MOTIVATE
Have a discussion with your group...

Who are the characters?
Why are they relevant to your story?

ACTIVATE
In today's lesson you must write yourself a monologue in role as your character. It shouldn't be any longer than 90 seconds. You must think about:
Age
Setting
Back-story
Objective
Occupation
Relevance to your story
You must now rejoin your groups and create a structure to perform your monologues back to the rest of the class. Think about:
What order should your monologues be performed in?
Could you use moments of canon? Unison?
Could you link the monologues together?
Could you incorporate moments of interaction between characters?
Could characters question one another?
ACCELERATE
Sentence Starters:
"When I was younger..."
"My name is"
"I always believed"
"It was a difficult time"
"Things are fantastic"
"I'm the sort of person..."
"In the future I..."
"I regret..."
"I believe that.."
"I never knew about..."
"It all started when..."
Incorporate moments of silence to create tension and highlight subtext

Refer to the other characters in your group to link your stories together.

ACTIVATE
CONSOLIDATE
What exercises have we taken part in to respond to the stimulus?

How has your concept/story developed so far?

What ideas have you formed for your performance?
CELEBRATE
Who in your group has come up with excellent ideas?

Who in your group always has energy and works hard?

Who performed an outstanding monologue?
ACTIVATE
You will spend today's lesson devising your performances. Incorporate the three scenes that you have already created:
Soundscape
Movement Sequences
Monologue Scene
STAGE
What stage configuration will you use to perform?
SKILLS
TECHNIQUES
STRUCTURE
Beginning, middle and end?
End, beginning, middle?
?
Facial Expressions
Body Language
Proxemics
Gestures
Eye Contact
Voice
Still image
Slow Motion
Narration
Movement
Thought track
Placards
Soundscape
Monologue
EVALUATE
CONSOLIDATE
Verbatim
Drama Tracker
Your Drama Tracker will remain with you until you finish year 11. It will track your progress and allow you to monitor targetets.
Component 1
Activity: Devising in response to a stimulus
Read through the feedback I have given you, and translate this in to your tracker.
REHEARSAL CHECKLIST
You will be performing your pieces tomorrow! These performances will go on your drama tracker and will count towards your base line assessment! You should:
Sound scape scene
Monologue Scene
Verbatim Scene
Movement Scene
Lighting & Sound cue sheet
Relevant props/costume indicators
SPELLING TEST
In the back of your book, put the date and title: Spelling Test

In the margin, write numbers 1-10.

You must attempt to spell as many words correctly.
Stimulus
Proxemics
Audience
Tension
Emotion
Atmosphere
Meaning
Movement
Technique
Interpretation
SELF ASSESSMENT
What went well in the rehearsal?
What went well in the performance?
What target will you set for your rehearsal process?
What target would you set for your performance?
You must make two comments per question, write your answers in two parts and in full sentences! Ensure you use subject specific vocabulary!
STAGE CONFIGURATIONS
In the back of your book, stick in the stage configuration hand out. This will be for you to reference when you put together your performances.
SKILL & TECHNIQUE CHECKLIST
Also in the back of your book, stick in the skill and technique checklist. Tick off any skills and techniques that you think you have used so far...
What stage configuration did you use for your assessment?
Key Terms
What new key terms have you learned? Write the term and its' definition on the sheet...
DELIBERATE
Discuss the quote below...

What do you think the speaker means?

What is the speaker implying about art and theatre?

What sort of theatre does this represent?
Brecht was a German poet, playwright and director.

He was born in Bavaria Germany on the 10th February 1898

Among Brecht's famous plays were:
The Caucasian Chalk Circle
Mother Courage and her Children
The Threepenny Opera
MOTIVATE
Fill in your practitioner profile by extracting information from the videos and slide!
Bertolt Brecht
ACTIVATE
If Brecht were alive today, what would he create performances about?

As a class, create a character a mind-map that reflects the current issues faced in our society, focus on what you care about and believe in...
What issues do people face in todays’ society?
What do you stand for?
What change would you make?
GESTUS
Gestus is the use of gestures to demonstrate a role on stage. Brecht did not believe in in-depth characters, he preferred to use the term roles.He also used stereotypes/archetypes to communicate his political messages.
Make the world blind...
Addiction
Poverty
Gender
Terrorism
Trump
Social Class
LGBT
Mental Health
Equal Opportunities
Poverty
Refugee Crisis
Privacy
Racism
NHS
CONSOLIDATE
Using your change, create a 'gestus' to illustrate it. .

Combine your entire groups 'Gestus' and verbalise the change to create a mini Brechtian performance!
DELIBERATE
Where was Brecht from?
Germany
Name one of Brecht's plays...
Mother Courage and her Children, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, The Threepenny Opera
Brecht was a director, writer and...
Poet
What is the difference between dialectic and didactic?
Brecht based his works around...
Politics
How did Brecht want to make his audiences feel?
Finish the sentence: Art is not a mirror held up to reality but...
a hammer with which to shape it
Deliberate
What technique uses gestures to communicate a archetypal character?
Gestus
What year was Brecht born?
1898
What example did we see of Brecht making the audience aware they were watching a performance?
Man on stage performing the sound effects
VERFREMDUNGSEFFEKT
Distancing effect (Brechtian Verfremdungseffekt) The distancing effect is a technique used in theater and cinema that prevents the audience from losing itself completely in the narrative, instead making it a conscious critical observer.
MOTIVATE:
Create a short scene using your given Brechtian technique in order to make your audience feel distanced and conscious within the action...
ACTIVATE
In todays' lesson you will receive your stimulus! You must investigate the stimulus and add annotations as to what ideas it may conjure for you...
Date: 27th September
RAG:
NO FAR-FETCHED IDEAS!

NO STEPHEN MERCHANT GCSE PIECES!

WHAT WAS THE BASIS OF BRECHT'S PLAYS?
Learning Objective: To develop a structure of episodes for your performance
EPISODIC STRUCTURE
Episodic Structure: This structure is associated with the plays of Brecht. Plays are made up of relatively short scenes that are linked together by the same character, place or theme.

How do you think this would have contributed to alienating/distancing the audience from the action on stage? This term is also known as...?
EPIC THEATRE
Epic theatre (German: episches Theater) is a theatrical movement arising in the early to mid-20th century from the theories and practice of a number of theatre practitioners who responded to the political climate of the time through the creation of a new political theatre. These practitioners included Erwin Piscator, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Vsevolod Meyerhold and, most famously, Bertolt Brecht.
ACTIVATE
Fill in the story board with different episodes that will feature in your piece. This is subject to change, but it will help you structure your ideas, characters and storyline...
Characters & Roles
Multi-Role
Gestus
Deliberate
Add to your story board all that you have discussed about roles and how you intend to use multi-role to communicate your message...
Brecht did not want the actors to be the character onstage, only to show them as a type of person. For example, the boss who is corrupt and smoking a fat cigar as his workers starve is representative of every boss who profits through the exploitation of others. For this reason Brecht will often refer to his characters by archetypal names, such as ‘The Soldier’ or ‘The Girl’.
Gestus, another Brechtian technique, is a clear character gesture or movement used by the actor that captures a moment or attitude rather than delving into emotion. So every gesture was important.
The differences in character are marked by changing voice, movement, gesture and body language but the audience can clearly see that the same actor has taken on more than one role. This means the audience are more aware of the fact that they are watching a presentation of events. Cross-sex casting is also possible in Epic theatre as we don’t need to suspend our disbelief.
ACTIVATE
Start to develop 'Gestus' for the roles within your performance. Choose an episode from your storyboard and begin to develop the scene...
Deliberate
What Brechtian techniques have we looked at so far?

In the performance we saw yesterday, did they use and Brechtian techniques?

Did they create any verfremdungseffekt?

To those that saw the year 13 performances, what did you think?
MOTIVATE
In your groups you must use the placards given and develop a brief scene. You can use the placards in any way!
ACCELERATE
Incorporate gestus in to your scene too for each role played!
ACTIVATE
Incorporate the technique of placards in to your piece...

Use them to:
Highlight Subtext
Deliver facts and statistics
Make the audience laugh...
TICKLE AND SLAP
Tickle and slap is a technique one might find in a Brechtian piece. The tickle is where the audience are made to laugh at a topic or issue that may seem quite serious. The slap follows the tickle to agitate the audience, making them question WHY they were laughing; thus making them think!
DEVISING WITH BRECHT
Learning Objective: To explore techniques typically used by Brecht to create Epic Theatre
What have you done so far?
Techniques
Key Words
Gestus
Spass (tickle and slap)
Multi-role
Placards
Episodic Structure
Direct address
Narration
Verfremdungseffekt
Alienation
Distancing
Epic Theatre
Didactic
Dialectic
Narration &Direct Address
What does it mean to suspend your disbelief?
Brecht wanted his audiences to be engaged in a performance, but avoided audiences becoming emotionally invested in characters.

How do you breaking the fourth wall and directly addressing the audience achieves this?
Watch the example of the narrator role from Brecht's 'Threepenny Opera' performed at the national in 2016.

How is narration used?

How is direct address used?

What other techniques can you see?
Narration &Direct Address
MUSIC, SONG & DANCE
SET, PROPS & COSTUME
How could you use these techniques creatively?
Narration:
Telling the audience what is going to happen before it does...
Highlighting the fact that you are a narrator/actor
Addressing the set, space and time
Third person narrating, for example: "Miss Pinnell could feel her patience wear thin when year 10 would not shut up...
Speaking stage directions

Direct Address:
Posing questions to the audience relating to the events on stage
Making and maintaining eye contact with audience members
Saying hello!
Actors emerging through the audience
Commenting on set, props, costume, lighting
Using placards
SET
PROPS
COSTUME
LIGHTING
SOUND
COMPONENT 1: DEVISING THEATRE
COMPONENT BREAKDOWN
1)
3)
2)
Devising: create and develop ideas to communicate meaning for performance. This is assessed through the portfolio of supporting evidence
Realising/Performance: Apply theatrical skills to realise artistic intentions. This is assessed through the performance.
Evaluating: analyse and evaluate your own work. Written evaluation completed in exam conditions
30 MARKS
15 MARKS
15 MARKS
DEVISING
REALISING
The timing of your piece is crucial to you obtaining the top marks. Anything under or over the time limit will be penalized by the examiner.
Group of 4: 9-14 minutes
Group of 5: 11-16 minutes
Group of 6: 12-17 minutes
EVALUATING
This component is 40% of your qualification and worth up to 60 marks.
It will be internally assessed and externally moderated.

The process you go through to devise your performance is crucial in this component and is worth the 30 marks. You will record this process in a portfolio worth 30 marks.

In your portfolio you will write about the following:

How you have interpreted the stimulus, researched your ideas and developed this through rehearsal
How ideas of the practitioner have been utilised to communicate meaning
How ideas have been developed, refined and amended to form the devised piece.
Your portfolio should be between 750-900 words and should include illustrative material such as:
Sketches
Photogrpaphs
Ground plans
Scripts
Story boards
Mood Boards
Research
Digital Media
Devising Portfolio
Base 1:
Base 2:
Base 3:
Base 4:
ILLUSTRATIVE
MATERIAL
Base 1
Base 2
Base 3
Base 4
STIMULUS
PRACTITIONER
REHEARSAL & PERFORMANCE
Clean-Up
After you have performed your realisation you will complete a performance evaluation in exam conditions. This will last 1 hour and 30 minutes and is worth 15 marks.
Your evaluation will focus on three elements:
Analyse and evaluate your interpretation of character
Analyse and evaluate how your owen performance skill contributed to the performance
Analyse and evaluate your individual contribution to the performance in reference to stimulus and practitioner.
ARTISTIC AIMS
"Our artistic aims are to educate the audience regarding..."
"We hope to..."
"We want our audiences to feel"
The objective of our piece is to...
How have you researched, created and developed ideas in response to the stimulus?
How have you formed ideas from your chosen practitioner to communicate meaning?
Firstly, start by re-annotating your poem and highlighting the key lines that helped to develop your concept...

Now, re-visit your mind-map that helped to form your ideas, did you use the 5 W's or SCRAM? As a group, re-create this now...

Finally, individually, you must write your opening paragraph to your portfolio in relation to your stimulus. You must refer to your illustrative material to back up your points. 225-250 words.
Illustrative Material
CHECKLIST:
Annotated Poem
Mind Map (Either 5 W'S or SCRAM)
Storyboard of episodes
Working Script
Ground Plan
News paper article
Video (youtube, buzzfeed, lad bible)
Films
Documentaries
Books
Case-studies
Music/Songs
Poetry
Sayings/phrases/expression
Artwork
Photographs
Corporations
Traditions
Events
HOME LEARNING
You must each bring to next lesson a piece of research that you feel is relevant to your concept. This could be:
FLOOR PLANS
Props were simple and often Brecht used props that were versatile to reflect different objects within scenes. For example, a brick could be a weapon, then a phone then an ice-cream.
Essentially, Brecht used minimal set and this often had bare staging. Brecht wanted his audiences to see the mechanisms that allowed any set to move or appear.

Furniture was used to represent what location a scene may take place in, for example a sofa would represent a living room or crucifix for a church.

Setting can also be created by using the idea of placards. See example
Due to the multi-role used in Brechtian performances, costume typically consisted of one poignant item to represent the role. Characters often changed costume on stage; again to alienate the audience of becoming invested in the continuity of a particular character.
HOW TO STRUCTURE BASE 1...
We read the poem; 'The Unknown Citizen' by W.H Auden and our initial responses were...

Certain lines such as _______________ suggested that the character/theme...

This led us to discuss/brainstorm the topic of...

We felt this linked with other lines such as _____________ as they also contributed to the idea of....

Following this instinct we made the decision to base our performance on...

We made the decision to...

To research this topic, I found...

This highlighted to me...
SENTENCE STARTERS...
BUZZ WORDS
STIMULUS
INTERPRETATION
RESPOND
IDEA
BRAINSTORM
RESEARCH
ANALYSE
DEVELOP
CONCEPT
What are your artistic aims?

Why have you chosen Brecht as your practitioner?

What have you learned about Brecht's style?

How will this make your performance better?
STRUCTURING BASE 2
After deciding that we would explore ____________ from our stimulus, we chose to incorporate the influence of practitioner; Bertolt Brecht.

Brecht is known for....

We discussed using the techniques...

We hope to communicate...

We want our audience to feel/think/question...
ACTIVATE
BUZZ WORDS
VERFREMDUNGSEFFEKT
EPIC THEATRE
Draw a floor plan of your chosen stage configuration- this should be from a birds eye view...

You must give details of entrances, exits, audience sight lines etc.
Demonstrate your episodic structure by completing the story board. Give details of what each episode will entail, draw images of the scene and actors positioning.
ALIENATION
DISTANCING
POLITICS
COMMUNICATE
AUDIENCE
DIDACTIC
TENSION
AIMS
STYLE
SENTENCE STRUCTURES
BASE 3
In this section, you will describe and analyse how your ideas have been developed, amended and refined throughout the development of your piece.
IDEAS
SPASS
DIRECT ADDRESS
NARRATION
EPISODIC STRUCTURE
ARCHETYPE CHARACTERS
GESTUS
TICKLE & SLAP
MULTI-ROLE
PLACARDS
MUSIC & SONG
CHORAL SPEECH
BASE 3
You should choose up to 5 techniques to discuss in your base 3. Your base 3 will be the bulk of your portfolio. You must discuss how you have incorporated each of your techniques to communicate meaning to the audience. For example:
To communicate the issue of racism; we developed a structure of 4 episodes that would represent how different characters experienced racism. An episodic structure is a Brechtian technique that alienates audiences; preventing them from becoming too engrossed in the narrative of a performance. At first it was unclear to the audience that we were moving on to the next episode so we refined this in rehearsal by incorporating lighting and music to illustrate the transition between each one. The audience would also see the scene changes and us getting changed in to new roles to remind them that they are watching a performance.
POINT: What technique are you using in your performance.

EXPLANATION: Why have you chosen to use this technique? What do you hope it will communicate?

EVIDENCE: How will the examiner see this in your performance? How have you refined and amended this to use the technique effectively?

LINK: Conclude your point by linking to one of the following elements: Stimulus, practitioner, audience, artistic aims
PEEL CHAINS
THINGS TO REMEMBER...
The examiner will watch your performance before reading your portfolio. You must ensure that all you write about is seen in your performance

You should link your statements to your illustrative material. For example: We created a mind map to explore our ideas and discussed setting, character relationship, atmosphere and meaning.

You must describe YOUR personal contribution. What ideas did you come up with? What do YOU do in the performance?

You must describe rehearsal techniques such improvisation, hot-seating, narration, speaking stage directions. For example: To rehearse the interaction between characters; we took part in an improvisation to see explore how they would respond to one another. This helped with our performance as it gave us ideas for new dialogue and characterisation such as posture and tone.

To reach top band, your ideas must be highly creative!
WHAT NEXT...?
FEEDBACK
ACCELERATE
If you have completed base 1, 2 and 3, you should draw a floor plan and stage configuration to add to your illustrative material.

Stage Configuration: Stage, audience, entrances & exits, lighting sources

Floor Plan: Set, props, projections, floor cloth etc.
STAGING
Your books will be marked giving you feedback to action. You will have the opportunity to re-draft your portfolio implementing the feedback.
You will type up your portfolio in the next theory lesson and this portfolio must be submitted on: Friday 8th December. You will sit your evaluation exam on the 13th December.
For the first half of today's lesson, you will be completing all that is required for your portfolio. This will include:

Base 1-3 written up and reaching between 750-900 words.
Base 1: 250
Base 2: 150
Base 3: 500



Base 4 checklist completed and all relevant resources in pack. This should consist of:
SCRAM/WWWWW Mind Map
Annotated Poem of ‘The Unknown Citizen’
Story Board illustrating your episodic Structure
Working Script
Ground Plan (Drawing of your stage configuration and set from birds eye view) This should include entrances, exits, set, props, lighting sources
Research Task (Completed for home learning)h

FIRSTLY...
Analyse and evaluate your interpretation of character/role
SECONDLY...
Analyse and evaluate how your performance skills contributed to the effectiveness of the final performance
THIRDLY
Analyse and evaluate your individual contribution to the final performance including how effectively you fulfilled your artistic aims
EVALUATION
Your evaluation is worth 15 marks of this component.
You will write your evaluation in controlled conditions next lesson.

You will have one hour to complete this, those wanting to spend longer can work on their evaluation through lunch time too.

You can take two sides of A4 notes in to the assessment with you to reference.

You will prepare these notes today...
What role/character did you play?

How did you adapt to play a variety of roles?

Was your character clear to the audience?
How did you use facial expressions? Describe a moment that you did this well?

Did you use body language effectively? Posture, gestures

What vocal techniques did you use? Volume, pitch, pace, tone?

Did you remain completely in role?
Did you help to communicate your story line?

Were you energetic, animated and charismatic on stage?

Did you help to create tension, emotion, atmosphere or meaning?

Positives
Negatives
Positives
Negatives
Positives
Negatives

Name: Katherine Parnell
Date: 13/12/17
Component 1: Evaluation
Analyse and evaluate your interpretation of character/role
Analyse and evaluate how your performance skills contributed to the effectiveness of the final performance
Analyse and evaluate your individual contribution to the final performance including how effectively you fulfilled your artistic aims
Full transcript