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Chapter 9: Vocalics: Our Voices Speak Nonverbal Volumes

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on 4 September 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 9: Vocalics: Our Voices Speak Nonverbal Volumes

A
pause
is a temporary stop in speech, sometimes referred to as a
vocal hesitation

Fluency
refers to how continuously we produce sounds as communicators

Research suggests that pausing behavior may be related to:

Emotions, because people who are depressed tend to pause in their speech more than people who aren't depressed
Define vocalics (paralanguage) as a nonverbal communication code

Understand the difference between verbal and vocal communication

Identify the major anatomical contributors to voice production and explain their primary functions

List and describe five properties and three qualities of the voice

Define vocalizations and explain how they serve as nonverbal communication
Production of Voice
Properties and Qualities of the Voice
Synchrony
occurs when people's nonverbal cues (even vocal cues) mirror each other

Vocal
rate
is significantly affected by emotion; this effect is often hard to control

Volume
(sometimes called
intensity
) refers to the softness or loudness of your voice

Accenting
refers to the use of nonverbal cues to emphasize or draw special attention to a verbal message
Applications of Vocalics Research (cont.)
Applications of Vocalics Research (cont.)
There are three different types of pauses:

Filled pauses
include vocalizations such as “um” and “er”

Silent pauses
(sometimes called
unfilled pauses
) are breaks in speech that carry no sound; sometimes they're used on purpose but sometimes not

The
audible pause
(sometimes known as an
audible gasp
), occurs when air is taken in and speech is disrupted
Applications of Vocalics Research (cont.)
Back-channel cues
are responses to others' statements that can encourage them to continue speaking and signal our interest and attentiveness in the conversation while also indicating that we’d like a turn at talk

Turn-maintaining cues
are vocal nonverbal cues that indicate that we want to maintain the floor or our turn at talk

Turn-yielding cues
are vocal nonverbal cues that indicate that we want to relinquish the floor
Applications of Vocalics Research (cont.)
Chapter 9: Vocalics: Our Voices Speak Nonverbal Volumes
Identify three types of pauses and give examples of how each emerges in conversation, as well as public speaking situations

Discuss positive and negative uses of silence, including self-silencing

Identify four categories of turn-taking and explain how each nonverbally operates in everyday communication

Contrast interruptions with overlaps in conversation and explain how each can reflect dominance

Provide the four most common types of vocal cues associated with deception and offer examples of each
Vocalics
(sometimes referred to as
paralanguage
) is the study of how people express themselves through their voices

Tone of voice
is the means by which people can detect physical, emotional, and attitudinal states via voice

The primary vocal organs are the trachea, larynx (including vocal folds or cords), pharynx, nose, jaw, and mouth (including the soft palate, hard palate, teeth, tongue, and lips)

Our lungs are critical to voice production as well, since the voice is “audible air”
Pitch
is the falling or rising tone heard in the voice

Fundamental frequency
refers to the most comfortable or average pitch of your voice

Vocal variety
, or
inflection
, refers to the practice of varying the pitches used in speaking

The
rate of speech
refers to the pace at which sounds are uttered
Properties and Qualities of the Voice (cont.)
Articulation
(also called
enunciation
) refers to how distinctly you speak, while
pronunciation
refers to how correctly you speak

Vocal qualities
are characteristics of the voice that develop subtly and more as habits than conscious choices

Breathiness
of voice occurs when the glottis (space between the vocal folds) narrows but lets though more air than we normally use to make sounds

Raspiness
refers to the hoarseness or gravelly sound in a voice

Nasality
of the voice occurs when air is trapped or too heavily contained in the nasal cavities

Vocalizations
are non words or sounds not tied to speech, including those that can substitute for speech

A
filled pause
is a vocalization such as “um” or “er” that fills a pause
Applications of Vocalics Research
Silence
refers to the absence of sound

Self-silencing
refers to the inhibition of self-expression

Silencing the Self Theory first emerged from research with clinically depressed adult women, who reported that they constantly refrained from expressing their beliefs and opinions to their husbands or significant others

As a result, they experienced depression, low self-esteem, a morphing of identity into the kind of wife or partner they believed to be socially and culturally acceptable, and a lack of trust in their own opinions
Turn-taking
is a structure for conversation and a means of studying or tracking conversation for the purpose of analysis

Turn-taking is a subset of
interaction management
, or how people use verbal and nonverbal communication to conduct or manage their conversations with others

Turn-requesting cues
are used to signal that we'd like to engage in conversation, usually beginning with an intake of breath
Applications of Vocalics Research (cont.)
Turn-denying cues
are vocal nonverbal cues that indicate that we want other people to continue talking or don't want to converse at all

Interruptions
are obvious and abrupt vocal intrusions into someone's speech that disrupts the flow

Overlaps
are vocalizations that tend to occur just as one speaker finishes a turn at talk and another begins a turn
Researchers estimate that most people's ability to detect deception accurately is around 50%

Research has identified four different cues of deception

High pitch of voice

Response latency

Message duration

Speech errors
Applications of Vocalics Research (cont.)
Nonverbal Cycle
of Communication
Phase 1 asks you to inventory your own voice, how much you like it, and how others perceive it

Phase 2 asks you to identify some areas of your voice you want to improve or change

Phase 3 involves inventorying others' vocalic behavior

Phase 4 asks you to interact with others, enacting any vocalic changes you've decided are appropriate and gauge how you nonverbal behaviors transact with others' behaviors

Phase 5 involves an evaluation of the whole process
Summary
Vocalics is the study of the voice as a code of nonverbal communication

The primary vocal organs are the trachea, larynx, pharynx, nose, jaw, and mouth

Pitch, rate, volume, articulation, and pronunciation are five properties related to vocal production

Vocal qualities include breathiness, raspiness, and nasality

Vocalizations are non words or sounds that accompany speech or stand alone as forms of nonverbal communication

Pausing and silence are vocal nonverbal cues that are often overlooked but carry communicative power

Silencing of Self Theory refers to the way people inhibit their self-expression, producing a negative impact on self-esteem and communication in relationships

Filled pauses include vocalizations such as "um" and "er"

Silent pauses are breaks in speech that carry no sound
Audible pauses occur when air is taken in and speech is disrupted

Relational silence can heighten a persons frustration, which can then escalate into isolation

Self-silencing refers to the inhibition of self-expression, and can lead to depression, low self-esteem, and a lack of trust in one's own opinions

Turn-maintaining cues are vocal nonverbal cues that indicate that we want to relinquish the floor

Interruptions are obvious and abrupt vocal intrusions into someone's speech that disrupts the flow

Overlaps are vocalizations that tend to occur just as one speaker finishes a turn at talk and another begins a turn

Interaction management refers to how turn-taking operates to organize conversation

Turn-requesting, turn-maintaining, turn-yielding, and turn-denying cues are nonverbal cues associated with interaction management

Common vocal cues for deception include high pitch, response latency, message duration, and speech disfluencies and errors
Chapter Objectives
Vocalics and Deception
Unusually high pitch in the voice is a reliable indicator of deception

Response latency
refers to the amount of time someone takes to respond to another person's communication, with a high response latency indicating deception

Message duration
refers to the length of someone's message or response to another person's communication, and is also a a deception cue
Vocalics and Deception (cont.)
Speech errors
are incorrect uses of grammar, mispronounced words, and other problems that can indicate deception

People who attend more to vocal cues than bodily cues are more accurate detectors of deception than people who attend to other cues, such as eye contact, facial expressions, and movements
Nonverbal Reflexive Cycle
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