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Transcript of Quantum Computers
Richard P. Feynman
is the physics of the very small
Main features of Quantum
Quantum mechanics considered the deepest theory of physics, is used every day.
Using it we can only describe the phenomena, but we can't actually explain it (How does it happen?!)
However we have been able to start using some of these very unusual properties of quantum particles.
Now apply Quantum and Engineer it
Yuri Manin in 1980 and Richard Feynman in 1981 and the public lecture in 1982.
Superposition means a system can be in two or more of its states simultaneously. For example a single particle can be traveling along two different paths at once.
This implies that the particle has wave-like properties, which can mean that the waves from the different paths can interfere with each other.
Quantum computers can be based on:
Traditional Computer uses digital bits "0" and "1"
1. Spin of electrons "up" , "down", and Superposition.
2. Polarization of light photons.
3. Excitation states of the atom.
It uses quantum bits that called (Qubits)
Theory of Quantum Computers used today
Qubit can have state |0> or state |1>
Or linear combination of states, called superposition
Based on the strange property of quantum particles which is
is the most important property in the field of quantum communication. It says that two or more particles can be linked, and if linked, you can change properties of one particle changing the linked one.
number of transistors on a chip doubles about every two years.
Integrated circuits are becoming smaller and smaller
Why Needs Quantum Computers ?
Violation of Moore’s Law:
In 2003, Intel predicted the end would come between 2013 and 2018 with 16 nanometer manufacturing processes and 5 nanometer gates, due to quantum tunneling.
The insufficient of current computers in processing and storage
e.g (The travelling salesman problem)
large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much faster than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems.
What Can it provide to us ?
The are also now perfect quantum algorithm.
Scientists claims that if we have 300 qubits computer it will be more powerful than all computers in the world connected together, if we supposed the simplest case that an atom is responsible for a single qubit then it will need only 300 atoms controlled to result in this tremendous computational power.
Current Potential & Achievements
a computer called Orion was presented by D-Wave. The technology in D-Wave's quantum computer, called "adiabatic quantum computing", is based on superconducting electronics.
In 2012 :
Physicists Create a Working Transistor from a Single Atom.
A method for manipulating the charge of nitrogen vacancy-centres in diamond.
D-Wave claims a quantum computation using 84 qubits.
Reported creation of a 300 qubit quantum simulator.
Decoherence suppressed for 2 seconds at room temperature by manipulating Carbon-13 atoms with lasers.
i. Read & write
Challenges & Major problems:
iii. Noise and disturbance
The design of devices on such a small scale will require engineers to control quantum mechanical effects.
it gives us a whole new framework in which information can be processed in fundamentally new ways.
we as Nuclear Engineers must have a role towards this technology and improvements that it needs.
quantum effects will begin to interfere
why not build a quantum computer?