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Ancestral Colonial Choanoflagellate

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Javier Mendoza Diek

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Ancestral Colonial Choanoflagellate

Ancestral Colonial Choanoflagellate
Parazoa
Porifera
No organization at tissue or organ level. Only slightly more integrated than colonial protozoan
Placozoa
Trichoplax
Sponge
Mesozoa

Comprises all other animals. They posses true tissues organized into germ layers and an embryo that goes through gastrula stage
Radiata
radial symmetry
Separated by symmetry
Cnidaria
Anemone and Jellyfish
Ctenophora
Comb-jelly
Diploblastic with a gelatinous layer called mesolglea. Single opening with tentacles and cnidocytes, no cnidocytes on ctenophora
Bilateria
Bilateral symmetry
Separated by embryonic development
Protostomia
Deuterostomia
Lophotrochozoa
Tripoblastic with bilateral symmetry. They have muscles and nervous system more complex than nerve-net. No body cavity and respiratory and vascular system, only one opening like cnidaria
Eumetazoa
Platyhelminthes
Planaria
Depends on diffusion and moves through cilia and muscles. Flame cell for water balance and hermaphroditic
Flukes
Parasites with protective skin and suckers. Can have multiple hosts and different life stages (liver fluke).
Tapeworm
Head containing hooks and proglottids that are mainly fille with reproductive orgains. Food absorbed through skin. Larvae encyst in muscle.
Rotifera
Free living, mainly freshwater. Rotifers are dioecious and reproduce sexually or parthenogenetically. They are sexually dimorphic, with the females always being larger than the males. The coronal cilia create a current that sweeps food into the mouth.
Rotifers
Nemertea
Bryozoa
Have a crown of tentacle lined with cilia called lophophore. Statoblasts that lie dormant until conditions are favorable, which enables a colony's lineage to survive even if severe conditions kill the mother colony.
Brachiopods
Externally look like clams. Very abundant in fossil record.
Molluca
Coelomates with muscular foot, visceral mass containing internal organs, ventral nerve cords, trochophore larvae shared with flatworms and annelids. Have a radula.
Polyplacophora
Series of plates on the back; they are marine and cling to rocks. Chitons.
Gastropods
Torsion: twisted visceral mass. Eyes on top of tentacles and radula is a hard mouthpart used to scrape off food particles. Most are marine, but there are many freshwater and terrestrial species.
Bivalves
No head, two shells, hinged to each other. Filter-feed by circulating water currents
Cephalopods
Only molluscs with closed circulatory system. Smart, large eyes with good vision. Octopus are the most intelligent invertebrate with a well developed brain; however, structurally different than chordates. The pictures a chambered nautilus=only modern cephalopod with a shell.
Annelida
coelomate with segmented coelom. Metanephridium to secrete wastes. Setae provide traction and respiratory gases exchange in order to respire.
Oligochaete
Hermaphrodotic. Have seminal reciptacles and have a clitellum which secretes a cocoon that slides off worm after copulation.
Polychaetes
Bristleworms and sandworms. Have parapodia that consist of gills and locomotory part. Have distinct eyes that can detect water depth. Reproduce by
external
fertilization. Have
trocophore
larvae.
Leeches

Hirudiena
Hermaphroditic. Som have clitellum. During development, leeches lose the segmenting walls of the coelom, the cavity fill up with spongy tissue, but ganglia remain segmented.
Ecdysozoa
Shed their integuments
Nematode
dioecious, have a digestive tract that opens on both ends; enlarged pharynx. Locomotion by longitudal muscles only. Internal fertilization with
copulatory spicules
and have
ameoboid sperm.
Larvae look like miniature adults.
hookworm
Ascaris
Arthropods
Coelomate. Coelom reduced and largely replaced by hemocoel. Segmented. Tagmosis, fusion of segments with serial homology. Exoskeleton with jointed appendages.
Onychophora
Very small group of terrestrial animals, commonly known as peripatus or 'velvet worms' from their velvety appearance.
Trilobites
Extinct. Incomplete tagmosis. Top part gill and the bottom used in locomotion (like polychaete parapods).
Chelicerates
Prosoma=head and thorax. Opisthosoma=abdomen
Only two pairs of mouthparts in head region: chelicerata and pedipalps. NO ANTENNA
Crustaceans
Biramous. Have compound eyes, mandibles. Open circulatory system with sinuses. A nevrous system with anterior ganglion and a ventral nerve cord. Direct reproduction with nauplius larvae. Excretion of ammonia across gills and salt and water through excretory glands. Balance through statocyst and grow by molting.
Insects
Single stalked antennae. Compound eyes, hemocoel, repiration by trachea and reproduce by copulation. Chitinous exoskeleton. three tagma. 3 pairs of jointed legs. Compound eyes.
Echinodermata
Blactopore forms anus. Locomotion by tube feet. Water enters madreporite, goes to ring canal, then to radial canals. Radial canal attached to an ampula that operates the tube feet. Radially symmetrical. Larvae are bilateral and called bipinnaria.
Arachnida
Eight legs, with pedipalps and chelicera. Two kinds of eyes and sensory hairs. Have book lungs. Spiders and scorpions have external digestion. Venom injected by chelicerate or sting bulb on the tail.
Pycnogonida
Sea spiders, long legs with small body. very small.
Merostomata
pedipalps
Myriapoda
Two tagmata: head and trunk. Diplopoda are millipedes and chilopoda and centipedes.
Branchipoda
brood chamber
First antennae
Copepoda
Marine zooplankton. So small often lack gills, heart, arteries. Often single compound eye. Naupilus-molt 5-Copepodid-molt x 4- Mature adult
Cirripedia
Barnacles
Malacostraca
Decapoda
Amphipoda
Isopoda
Chordata
Urochordata
Larvae are free swimming containing all chordate characteristics. Adults become sessile. lose nothochord.
Cephalochordates
Have all chordate characteristics into adulthood. Also shares a characteristic with the vertebrates: segmented muscles.
Hemichordata
A burrowing worm formerly believed to be a chordate. Does not have a notochord, but has all other characteristics. Has tornaria larva similar to bipinnaria of echinoderms. Three body sections: proposcis, body and trunk. It has a ciliated epidermis. The excretory organ is called glomerus. Both Dorsal and ventral nerve cords.
Phylum Vertebrata
Chordate features, but greater cephalization. Skull and vertebral column replace notochord as main body support. Have a neural crest.
Notochord that supports the body. Have dorsal tubular nerve cord, pharyngeal slits and post anal tail.
Eukarya
Class Stelleroidea
Full digestive system
Subclass Asteroidea
Subclass Ophiuroidea
Arms are brittle. Used as escape mechanism since they can regenerate. No suction cups on their tube feet. No anus.
Class Echinoidea
Sea urchins with no arms. Composed of fued plates of calcium carbonate covered by thin epidermis. Tube feet move via water vascular system.
Airstotle's lantern= teeth/jaws and tongue like structure
Class Holothuroidea
Sea cucumbers have soft skin but premeated with ossicles. They have a body wall with circular and longitudinal muscles, oral tentacles and cuvierian tubules. Cephalization is absent.
Class Crinoidea
Stricly sessile and attached to the sea bottom. Five arms branching at base and bearing pinnules. Cilitated ambulacral grooves with tube feet for food gathering.
Agnatha (jawless vertebrates)
Class Myxine
Cartilaginous notochord with internal pharyngeal slits. Water exits by atriopores. Have slime glands. No scales, jaws or appendages. Are scavengers and carnivores. Have a two chambered heart. Has barbels on either side of the nostril and mouth which help with locomotion. "invertebrate craniates".
Pharyngeal Slits
Class Cephalaspidomorphi
Lampreys (pertromyzontida). They evolved from vertebrates but lost distinct vertebrae during evoluton. No jaws, bones, fins, or scales like hagfish. Both have rasping tongues. Each gill slit goes directly to the external environment (unlike hagfish). Mouth is modified for attachement to a fish host and for blood-sucking. Olfactory pit on the head, leads to sensory tissue.
Jaws
1. First two pairs of gill arches lost
2. Third pair of gill arches formed jaws
3. Fourth pair of gill arches formed hyoid apparatus
Extinct
Placoderm
Fish with jaws and paired fins without skeletal elements
Two sets of paired appendages
Teeth
Skeletal elements in fins
Placoid scales homologous with vertebrate teeth
Chondrichthyes
Cartilaginous skeleton with placoid scales and pharyneal slits that open to the outside. Heterocercal tail and 2 pairs of lateral, pectoral and pelvic fins. No swim bladder and digestive system with spiral valve. Oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. Have ampullae of Lorenzini which detects weak electrical signals.
small vermiform (form of a worm) animals formed by a few cells (among 20 and 30 cells, depending on the species) arranged in two layers that are not equivalent to the layers of metazoans. All mesozoans live as parasites of marine invertebrates and their cycle of life is very complex
Asymmetrical with spicules that stiffen up the skeleton. Spicules are made of calcium carbonate or silica and collagen.
Asconoid
Synconoid
Leuconoid
Radial symmetry. Central cavity serves both digestive and circulatory function. Diploblastic (epidermis and gastrodermis). Have nematocysts. Some have medusa stage or polyp stage. The tentacles have the nematocyst or cnidocytes. Medusa is sexual stage and polyp is asexual stage. Three classes: Hydrozoa (hydra, obelia, 3 stages of life cycle). Scyphozoa (medusa predominates-jellyfish). Anthozoa (polyp predominates-no medusa- sea anemonies, whips, corals)
Life cycle
Mandibulata
Lungs or lung derivatives
Craniata
Class Actinopterygii
Ray-finned fish. Long bones fan out in a ray. Elaborate control of fins.
Have swim bladder (homologous to lungs) to control buoyancy.
Have homocercal tail and a lateral line. Operculum is a large plate of bone that covers and protects the gill arches.
Actinistia
Lobe-finned fish, coelacanth.
Living fossils with fleshy fins that have precursor to tetrapod limb bones. May be closest ancestor to tetrapods.
Coelacanth is the only living species of this kind.
Tetrapods
Legs
Double circulatory system
strong shoulder girdle
well developed muscles
tetrapod limbs
protective rib cage
enhanced senses
Amphibia
Ectothermic/Poikilothermic
Well developed appendages
Lungs and Cutaneous respiration
Three chambered heart
Anura
Frogs and toads
Tail lost in adult stages
Hind legs developed for jumping.
Humerus-bone in the arm from shoulder is very short
Radioulna-fused radius and ulna
Urostyle- long unsegmented bone that represents a number of fused vertebrae and forms the posterior part of the vertebral column of frogs and toads
Femur is the thigh bone
Tibiofibula- bone in toads and frogs that is formed by the fusion of the tibia and the fibula
Have mucus glands that secrets mucus to help keep moist while on land and controls salt and water balance in water.
Poison gland which sectes poison
Chromatophore-allows for camouflage.
Caudata
Presence of a tail in all life stages
Smooth, non-scaly skin
Aquatic salamanders have external gills
Paedomorphosis
Gymnophiona
Caecilians
resemble earthworms of snakes
live mostly hidden in the ground
Amniotes
The amniotes are a group of tetrapods (descendants of four-limbed and backboned animals) that have an egg equipped with an amnios, an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as anamniotes (including frogs) typically do.
Diapsida
Diapsid skull
Amniotic, shelled egg
Epidermal scales
More sufficient lungs
Limbs positioned beneath body for better walking
Internal fertilization
No larval stages
Order Chelonia
Derived anapsid skill (modified diapsid)
Epidermal scales
Scale- multi-layered, do not shed, but may wear away.
Carapace- dorsal section of the shell
Plastron- ventral underside, nearly flat.
Horny beak instead of teeth.
Subclass Lepidosauria
Order Squamata
Suborder Lacertillia
Shift away from respiratory function of the skin as seen in amphibians. Tends to be much thicker, more keratinized, and less permeable to water. Has overlapping scales
Suborder Serpentes
Snakes have a pit organ which is used for heat sensing. The Glottis opens from the front instead of near the pharynx to allow the snake to breath while slowly swallowing large prey. Fangs are hollow in venomous species. No appendages, but still within tetrapods because evolved from tetrapod. Some still have remnants of appendages.
Subclass Archosaurs
Order Crocodilia
Hard palate (separates mouth and nasal passage)
Teeth sockets
4 chambered heart
Foramen of Panizza
Epidermal Scales
Scaly skin is not shed as animal grows, but instead is retained to form thick body armor.
Dinosauria
Saurischian
Aves
Feathers are a synapomorphy for birds
Four chambered hearts
Endotherms
High metabolic rates
Amniotes
Sexual dimorphism
High diverity of habitats and habits
Forelimbs modified as wings
Sternum keeled in birds that fly
unidirectional lung with 9 air sacs
Light "pneumatized" bone
feathers
No bladder/semisolid urine (uric acid)
Toe-lock system
Mammalia
Synapsid skull
Haird and glads
(sweat and mammary)
External ears and 3 ossicles
Heterodont tooth pattern
Diaphragm and epiglottis
Complete hard and soft palates
High metabolism
Large brains, especially in the frontal lobes of the forebrain
Order Monotremata
Egg-laying mammals

Marsupiala
Give birth to very underdeveloped young, no placenta.
Climbs to mother's nipples in their pouch, where they stay and develop.
Order Atiodactyla
Even-toed ungulates, tend to be ruminants
Order Chiroptera
Order Rodentia
Largest order of mammals
Order Carnivora
Order Primates
Order Perissodactyla
Odd-toed ungulates, large grazers
Order Lagomorpha
Completely herbivorous unlike rodents. Hve four incisors in the upper jaw (rodents have two)
Animalia
Fungi
Plantae
Alveolata
All members have cilia and a membrane sac called an alveoulus.
Euglenozoa
Characterized by the presence of one ot two flagella which potrude from the organism's anterior end. With or without chloroplasts (not a plant)
Stramenophila
All have hair like projections on their flagella.
It includes diatoms, chrysophytes, brown algae and some protozoa.
Photoautotrophic
Found in soil, fresh water, and marine environments
Bacteria
Archaea
LIFE
Tardigrada
Tardigrades have no external head appendages. They posses stylets, 4 pairs of lobopods with claws and the ability to go through cryptobiosis (a waterless dormant stage called a Tun). They usthe stylets to pierce cell wall of mosses .
Protists
Lophophore
Segmented body plan
Trochophore
Microscopic, single-celled organisms that possess a prokaryotic type of cell structure, which means their cells are noncompartmentalized, and their DNA (usually circular) can be found throughout the cytoplasm rather than within a membrane-bound nucleus. They reproduce by fission or by forming spores. They can practically live everywhere. They can inhabit all kinds of environment, such as in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, seawater, deep in the Earth's crust, in stratosphere, and even in the bodies of other organisms.
Archaea or archaebacteria evolved separately from eubacteria and eukaryotes. They are similar with eubacteria in being prokaryotes and lacking distinct cell nucleus. They differ in terms of ribosomal structure, the possession of introns (in some species) and in membrane structure or composition. They are similar to eukaryotes in ways that archaea possess genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely related to those of eukaryotes: notably the enzymes involved in transcription and translation.
organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus. Eukaryotes include all living organisms other than the eubacteria and archaebacteria.
Eukaryotic Cell
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