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Contemporary SLA Theories

Presentation for LING 4030.
by

Chase Callegan

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Contemporary SLA Theories

Contemporary Theories in SLA Cognitive Theories Norman Segalowitz Sociocultural Theory (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr -Learners must pay attention when learning.

-Here, "pay attention" is defined by using cognitive resources to fully engage with content.

-The challenge presented by using cognitive resources to process information is that learners cannot pay attention to everything at one time.

-Learners may ignore certain morphemes and focus only on the words that effect meaning.

-Through experience and practice learners gradually apply what they already know.

-This frees up more capacity to focus on other aspects of language that the learner is not familiar with or did not notice at first.

-This explains why second language readers need more time to comprehend what they are reading even though they eventually get it. (Favreau and Segalowitz)

-Note: With the goal being automatic use of language, practice doesn't necessarily mean that awareness is always involved. Mere exposure still counts; learning is not always mechanical. Lev Vygotsky, Merrill Swain, and Jean Piaget were the leading researchers of the Sociocultural Theory. Learning occurs when children interact with adults or more knowledgeable members of society within their Zone of Proximal Development. Intro. to Cognitive Theories -emphasize learning as learning.

-Argue that "learning" and "acquisition" is the same thing.

-Even though UG is a plausible explanation for L1 Acquisition there must be something else that explains L2 Acquisition. 3 Components of the Sociocultural Theory 1. Cultural Settings
2. Interactions with Others
3. Zone of Proximal Development Criticisms Many other theorists felt that this theory focused too much on the role of social interaction in cognitive development. Information Processing Model Krashen's Monitor Model Swain/Lapkin Investigated sociocultural explanations for second language learning in Canadian-French Immersion programs.
The production of language pushes learners to process language more deeply.
Learners must pay attention to how meaning is expressed in language when preparing to speak or write.
Comprehensible Output Hypothesis
Advocated for opportunities for learners to participate in output/verbal language production. Robert DeKeyser -Elaborated on J.R. Anderson's work.

-Investigated language acquisition as 'skill learning'.

-Learning starts with Declarative Knowledge and becomes Procedural Knowledge.

-Declarative Knowledge is knowledge regarding rules and guidelines followed when riding a bike or rock climbing. (i.e. first, don't stop pedaling, second, always face forward, etc.)

-Procedural Knowledge is knowledge called on when a task is already learned and can be executed automatically.

-Procedural Knowledge often eclipses Declarative Knowledge once perfected. (i.e. Rubix)

- Piaget Jean Piaget believed that learners sort their knowledge in schema that was acquired through interactions and experiences. Vygotsky Criticism:
•Circular Definition
•Cannot be tested by empirical research
•Not observable Steven Krashen
•Innnatist
•Came up with the 5 hypotheses in the 70s
•Focused on what happens in the classroom Connectionism
•Hypothesis that language acquisition does not require a separate module of the mind but can be explained in terms of learning in general.
•What children need to know is essentially available to them in the language they are exposed to.
•Can learn certain things if exposed to long enough.
•Computer simulation- language samples were provided as input into the program. The goal was to show that the program could "learn" certain things if it is exposed to them enough.
•Children make the same kind of mistakes.
•Learning takes place gradually.

•Jeffery Elman: Researcher that explained language acquisition by how children acquire “links” between words and phrases and the situations in which they occur. •Process of associating words with elements of external reality. Lightbown and McLaughlin -Language learning is not always explainable by a gradual build up of language.

-These changes in skill level is described as 'restructuring'.

-This happens when a learner finally puts aspects of language, that once seemed separate, together.

-Sometimes this integration causing 'backsliding' where irregular rules are applied to regular forms. Errors like these are not learned, but are caused by the integration of rules. Blaxton -"transfer appropriate processing"

-Learners recall more in situations that are related to those in which they learned.

-This explains why learners remember more on tests that look like their drills and activities that are covered in class. Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return “Links” or connections between words and phrases and situations in which they occur. $400 Answer Topic 6 Scaffolding (or using input hypothesis)  $300 Answer Topic 6 Bobby is trying to learn Chinese, but cannot concentrate in class because his dog just died. Bobby cannot learn language today because… $200 Question Topic 6 Return Young Katie has no idea how to tie her shoes. Her parents teach her to complete the task in three steps take one "bunny ear", loop it around the other, and pull both tightly. After several weeks of practice Katie is able to tie her shoes without keeping the steps in mind. $100 Question Topic 6 Return Norman Seglowitz $500 Answer Topic 5 Lev Vygotsky $400 Answer Topic 5 The theorist believed that learning occurs when children interact with adults or more knowledgeable members of society within their Zone of Proximal Development. $400 Question Topic 5 Jean Piaget $300 Answer Topic 5 Jeffery Elman $200 Answer Topic 5 Steven Krashen $100 Answer Topic 5 The researcher that came up with 5 hypothesis to explain SLA $100 Question Topic 5 Return Process of associating words with elements of external reality $500 Question Topic 4 Return Gradually $400 Answer Topic 4 Learning due to exposure $300 Answer Topic 4 The language children need to know $200 Question Topic 4 Return Learning in general $100 Answer Topic 4 Return The Comprehensible Output Hypothesis $500 Answer Topic 3 The main criticism of the Sociocultural Theory $400 Answer Topic 3 An explanation for knowledge and learning that is based on the assumption that all learning is first social then individual. Learning is viewed as socially mediated, that is, it is dependent on dialogue in face-to-face interaction. $300 Question Topic 3 Return The 3 components of the Sociocultural Theory $200 Answer Topic 3 Return Zone of Proximal Development $100 Answer Topic 3 Transfer Appropriate Processing $500 Answer Topic 2 Return Restructuring $400 Answer Topic 2 What it means to "Pay Attention" $300 Answer Topic 2 Procedural Knowledge Daily Double Answer Return Knowledge that or knowledge of rules and guidelines to accomplish something. $100 Question Topic 2 Affective filter hypothesis $500 Answer Topic 1 The hypothesis that explains the emotional aspect of learning a language $500 Question Topic 1 Return Natural Order Hypthosis $400 Answer Topic 1 The hypothesis that explains that learners monitor and edit their language because they are concerned with producing the correct language $300 Question Topic 1 Return Input Hypothesis $200 Answer Topic1 The hypothesis that explains the difference between acquired and learned language $100 Question Topic 1 Researchers Topic 5 Sociocultural Theories Topic 3 Krashen’s Monitor Model Topic 1 Late SLA theories Final Jeopardy Answer What did we do our presentation over Final Jeopardy Question Our presentation Final Jeopardy Topic Sociocultural Theory $500 Answer Topic 6 Angela is attempting to learn a second language by silently reading to herself from a spanish-english dictionary. Stacy, is also attempting to learn a second language but is immersing herself in the culture and is conversing in the language, then studying the written form. Stacy is developing her language at a much faster rate than Angela because she is embracing the social aspect of the language. This is an example of the _______________ Theory. $500 Question Topic 6 Sally knows the word “cat” because of her family cat and due to context clues in stories, life events, and situations; Sally begins to expand her idea of “cats” to all furry creatures. She will eventually begin “pruning” to define “cat” as felines. This process is due to _____________ $400 Question Topic 6 Mrs. Johnson is teaching and speaking one step above her students in order to bring them to her higher level and to challenge her learners. Mrs. Johnson is ___________________. $300 Question Topic 6 His affective filter is high $200 Answer Topic 6 What is Declarative vs. Procedural Knowledge $100 Answer Topic 6 Theorized that learners must use their cognitive processing abilities or "pay attention" in order for learning to take place.  $500 Question Topic 5 The theorist that believed learners sort their knowledge in schema that is acquired through interaction and experiences. $300 Question Topic 5 Researcher of connectionism who explained language acquisition  by how children acquire “links: between words and phrases and the situations in which they occur.  $200 Question Topic 5 Links $500 Answer Topic 4 How learning takes place $400 Question Topic 4 Language samples provided as input to a fairly simple goal $300 Question Topic 4 The  language they are exposed to $200 Answer Topic 4 Hypothesis that language acquisition does not need a separate part of the brain but can be explained in terms of… $100 Question Topic 4 The hypothesis that successful second language acquisition depends on the learners producing language (oral or written). $500 Question Topic 3 The theory is too focused on the social interaction aspect of language development $400 Question Topic 3 The sociocultural theory $300 Answer Topic 3 Settings, Interaction with Others, Zone of Proximal Development $200 Question Topic 3 The metaphorical ‘place’ in which a learner is capable of a high level of performance because there is support from interaction with a superior learner. $100 Question Topic 3 Accounts for why students recall more in situations or settings that are similar to those which they first learned.  $500 Question Topic 2 Happens when a learner puts aspects of language together. This explains sudden bursts of progress even when new material is not presented.  $400 Question Topic 2 Defined by using cognitive resources to fully engage with content. $300 Question Topic 2 Knowledge how or knowledge called on when a task is already learned and can be executed automatically. Daily Double Question Daily Double Declarative Knowledge $100 Answer Topic 2 The hypothesis that explains that learners learn structures in a developmental sequence $400 Question Topic 1 Monitor Hypothesis $300 Answer Topic 1 The hypothesis that describes scaffolding with the equation i+1 $200 Question Topic 1 Acquisition-learning hypothesis $100 Answer Topic 1 Theory Application Topic 6 Connectionism Topic 4 Information Processing Topic 2 Final Jeopardy 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 Theory
Application Researchers Sociocultural
Theories Connectionism Information
Processing Monitor
Model Jeopardy Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Return Lev Vygotsky $400 Answer Topic 5 Return Jean Piaget $300 Answer Topic 5 The theorist that believed learners sort their knowledge in schema that is acquired through interaction and experiences. $300 Question Topic 5 The researcher that came up with 5 hypothesis to explain SLA $100 Question Topic 5 Return Links $500 Answer Topic 4 Return Gradually $400 Answer Topic 4 Language samples provided as input to a fairly simple goal $300 Question Topic 4 The language children need to know $200 Question Topic 4 Return Learning in general $100 Answer Topic 4 The Comprehensible Output Hypothesis $500 Answer Topic 3 The main criticism of the Sociocultural Theory $400 Answer Topic 3 The sociocultural theory $300 Answer Topic 3 The 3 components of the Sociocultural Theory $200 Answer Topic 3 The metaphorical ‘place’ in which a learner is capable of a high level of performance because there is support from interaction with a superior learner. $100 Question Topic 3 Happens when a learner puts aspects of language together. This explains sudden bursts of progress even when new material is not presented.  $400 Question Topic 2 Defined by using cognitive resources to fully engage with content. $300 Question Topic 2 Return Procedural Knowledge Daily Double Answer Knowledge that or knowledge of rules and guidelines to accomplish something. $100 Question Topic 2 The hypothesis that explains the emotional aspect of learning a language $500 Question Topic 1 Return The hypothesis that explains that learners learn structures in a developmental sequence $400 Question Topic 1 Return Monitor Hypothesis $300 Answer Topic 1 Input Hypothesis $200 Answer Topic1 Theory Application Topic 6 Sociocultural Theories Topic 3 Krashen’s Monitor Model Topic 1 Late SLA theories Final Jeopardy Answer Our presentation Final Jeopardy Topic Sociocultural Theory $500 Answer Topic 6 Angela is attempting to learn a second language by silently reading to herself from a spanish-english dictionary. Stacy, is also attempting to learn a second language but is immersing herself in the culture and is conversing in the language, then studying the written form. Stacy is developing her language at a much faster rate than Angela because she is embracing the social aspect of the language. This is an example of the _______________ Theory. $500 Question Topic 6 “Links” or connections between words and phrases and situations in which they occur. $400 Answer Topic 6 Sally knows the word “cat” because of her family cat and due to context clues in stories, life events, and situations; Sally begins to expand her idea of “cats” to all furry creatures. She will eventually begin “pruning” to define “cat” as felines. This process is due to _____________ $400 Question Topic 6 Scaffolding (or using input hypothesis)  $300 Answer Topic 6 Mrs. Johnson is teaching and speaking one step above her students in order to bring them to her higher level and to challenge her learners. Mrs. Johnson is ___________________. $300 Question Topic 6 His affective filter is high $200 Answer Topic 6 Bobby is trying to learn Chinese, but cannot concentrate in class because his dog just died. Bobby cannot learn language today because… $200 Question Topic 6 What is Declarative vs. Procedural Knowledge $100 Answer Topic 6 Young Katie has no idea how to tie her shoes. Her parents teach her to complete the task in three steps take one "bunny ear", loop it around the other, and pull both tightly. After several weeks of practice Katie is able to tie her shoes without keeping the steps in mind. $100 Question Topic 6 Norman Seglowitz $500 Answer Topic 5 Theorized that learners must use their cognitive processing abilities or "pay attention" in order for learning to take place.  $500 Question Topic 5 The theorist believed that learning occurs when children interact with adults or more knowledgeable members of society within their Zone of Proximal Development. $400 Question Topic 5 Jeffery Elman $200 Answer Topic 5 Researcher of connectionism who explained language acquisition  by how children acquire “links: between words and phrases and the situations in which they occur.  $200 Question Topic 5 Steven Krashen $100 Answer Topic 5 Process of associating words with elements of external reality $500 Question Topic 4 How learning takes place $400 Question Topic 4 Learning due to exposure $300 Answer Topic 4 The  language they are exposed to $200 Answer Topic 4 Hypothesis that language acquisition does not need a separate part of the brain but can be explained in terms of… $100 Question Topic 4 The hypothesis that successful second language acquisition depends on the learners producing language (oral or written). $500 Question Topic 3 The theory is too focused on the social interaction aspect of language development $400 Question Topic 3 An explanation for knowledge and learning that is based on the assumption that all learning is first social then individual. Learning is viewed as socially mediated, that is, it is dependent on dialogue in face-to-face interaction. $300 Question Topic 3 Settings, Interaction with Others, Zone of Proximal Development $200 Question Topic 3 Zone of Proximal Development $100 Answer Topic 3 Transfer Appropriate Processing $500 Answer Topic 2 Accounts for why students recall more in situations or settings that are similar to those which they first learned.  $500 Question Topic 2 Restructuring $400 Answer Topic 2 What it means to "Pay Attention" $300 Answer Topic 2 Knowledge how or knowledge called on when a task is already learned and can be executed automatically. Daily Double Question Declarative Knowledge $100 Answer Topic 2 Affective filter hypothesis $500 Answer Topic 1 Natural Order Hypthosis $400 Answer Topic 1 The hypothesis that explains that learners monitor and edit their language because they are concerned with producing the correct language $300 Question Topic 1 The hypothesis that describes scaffolding with the equation i+1 $200 Question Topic 1 Acquisition-learning hypothesis $100 Answer Topic 1 The hypothesis that explains the difference between acquired and learned language $100 Question Topic 1 Researchers Topic 5 Connectionism Topic 4 Information Processing Topic 2 What did we do our presentation over Final Jeopardy Question Daily Double Final Jeopardy 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 500 400 300 200 100 Theory
Application Researchers Sociocultural
Theories Connectionism Information
Processing Monitor
Model Jeopardy
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