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Writing & Literacy


Romil Ching

on 27 March 2013

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Transcript of Writing & Literacy

Writing & Literacy Children's early writing
Teaching children writing
Process of writing
Feedback on writing
Writing and technology 3 Models of teaching writing Product Writing Process Writing Genre Writing focus on writing products
students produce one draft within a set time limit
teacher marks it for content & grammatical accuracy
teacher returns it for correction of grammatical mistakes focus on process of writing
emphasize on fluency rather than accuracy
allow students to pursue their own directions, take up topics that interests them (Graves 1981, 1983) Focus on more directly on the target text type/genre to be produced (Martin 1986, Christie et al. 1990a, 1990b) Teaching Procedures:
1. Choose a topic
2. Write a draft version
3. Hold a conference (w/ teachers or peer)
4. Write a final version
5. Publish their writings
(Graves, 1981, 1983) Pre-writing task(s)
Writing of 1st draft Peer & teacher comments on content
Revision of draft(s) Assessment of grammatical accuracy
Composition correction Children's
early writing -Interwoven with drawings

-Developmental stages:

-Acquired by imitating adult behaviour, esp. parents Drawings Scribbles Letter-like
forms Letter
sequences Spell
phonetically Spell
conventionally Sentence building -Cluster the words into meaningful lines

-Structure: subject-verb-object + punctuation mark

-Start noticing parts of speech

-Apply grammar Paragraph writing Paragraph writing

-Topic sentence
-Supporting examples
-Conclusion What does the teacher do
to engage students
before writing? Why does she need
to show different ways
of writing when describing
the same condition? -Engagement: draw the interest of students and share (daily life/sensory) experience

-Building knowledge: learn about and learn through written language

-Transformation: learn to use written language

-Presentation and reflection Writing Strategies Writing: meta-cognition
(a level of thinking that involves active control over the process of thinking that is used in learning situations)

-Time sequence
-References Zone of Proximal Development 1. Students have own vocabulary

2. Guided writing
Make use of writing strategies
(more expert partners providing one- way assistance)

3. Expansion of zone of current understanding +

Extension of zone of proximal development +

Reduction of zone of out of reach Feedback on writing -Why Feedback is needed?

-Why Feedback is important? PASS Quality of Feedback does matter! Positive Accurate Specific Support FEEDBACK
taken by
learners WHEN WHO -error identification
-types of error -teacher
-readers - bolg -before submission
-after submission -Your essay is full of grammatical mistakes. Practice Writing & Technology Each group please state the pros and cons of one of the following methods:



3. BLOGS Class Activity Technology is actually a double edged sword

Creative writing v.s inappropriate use of language ?

Easy using v.s lack of organization?

Depends of how teacher use it

"Water Can Overturn the Boat as Well as Float It" Conclusion

-Children attempt to ‘write’ from an early age

-Teachers need to link reading in the early stage of writing

-Teachers need to develop and enhance learners’ structural awareness

-Process approaches focus on student ‘authorship’

-Assist students to be aware of target audience, genre, process and what they learn from comments Discussion



Writing online

-Blog writing – creative writing
*Individual writing

-Collective writing in wiki – process-oriented writing
*Individual contributions
*Interactive -Topic sentence


-Supporting examples

-Conclusion -Your idea in the essay is creative, but it is still full of grammatical mistakes -Your idea in the essay is creative. it would be nice if there has higher grammatical accuracy
-Your idea in the essay is creative, like the second point you have mentioned...(example). That is really new to me, good job. At the same time, I am sure the essay will be nicer if you can pay more attention in the use of passive voice. -Know individual strength and rooms for improvement THANKS Are PASS the only elements of quality feedback?

Can you think of other elements that are also important? Class Activity Quality feedback actually contains a large amount of elements. (Interpersonal relationship, trust, honesty…etc.)
Teacher should always be aware of these in order to give quality feedback. -Peers feedback and Teachers feedback
-Teachers feedback:error correction high authority
-Peer feedback: Peer assistance on self regulationlearning by giving feedbacks
Which one is more important? Types of feedback Each type serves different purpose ! Class Activity Open the envelope and complete the task. Teaching Procedures: Modelling
Context: the social function of the genre
Text: schematic stages of a genre; language features of a genre

Joint negotiation of a text
Preparation activities: observation; research; note taking; discussion; rehearsing; role play
Joint construction of new text (S & T)

Independent construction of a text
Individual writing (draft)
Consultation with teacher, conferencing with peers
Editing and rewriting; critical evaluation; publishing
Creative exploitation of genre and its possibilities Common genres in primary school Product Approach Genre Approach Process Approach Product-oriented Product-oriented Process-oriented Accuracy
(Syntax & Morphology) Accuracy
(Pragmatics) Fluency Narrative writing/
Discussion-writing Teaching Writing in School X One Model Fits All Barnett (1999) against error-correction

Possible reasons?

Hinder fluency? Pragmatics

-deals with how meanings are inferred and dependent on context

-emphasizes the social aspects of language

-people with good pragmatic skills know
what to say to whom, when & how

-writing as a social and cultural act

-we use different formats and language styles...etc to in types of writings Restrict imagination/ creativity? Kern & Schultz (1992)

-the group that received process-oriented instruction out-performed the group with direct grammar instruction in terms of composition length & quality of organization

-Both group gains improvement in content, language use, syntactic complexity & error reduction Limitation -difficult for teachers to separate teaching from testing in an exam-oriented context Studies Question 1. To what extent can subject teachers (e.g. LS teachers) help students to develop their writing skills?

Question 2: In a university setting, how can teachers use peer review as a means to bring about a literacy supportive environment?

Question 3: To what extent do the email projects support/hinder language learning in Hong Kong classroom? AKyel & Kamisli (1997)

-process-oriented instruction improve students compositions grades

-all students react positively to the instruction Created by Romil
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