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Copy of Cybercrime
Transcript of Copy of Cybercrime
Markus Hess hacked into Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories
Early criminal "hacker"
: Mitnick began using "social engineering" to obtain access to systems at age 15. Hacked into Computer company DEC's network at age 16 and downloaded their operating system source code. Jail for 1 year, and on supervised released, hacked Pacific Bell, then
Kinds: goods (theft), ideas (IP)
Obscenity: Child pornography, locally obscene materials
Crime and cybercrime: origins
Some criminal acts are facilitated by ICT, but the crime is distinct from the technology. Others are only possible because the technology exists.
Crime: some act+intentional state made explicitly forbidden by law. Examples? What common elements?
Murder, manslaughter, theft, assault....
q: are all possible with ICT? In "cyberspace"?
So, what constitutes a "cybercrime"?
He was apprehended two years later, having continued hacking into systems, and pled guilty to:
Anyone who uses interstate wires to scheme to defraud or obtain money or property under false or fraudulent pretenses can be charged with wire fraud.
Computer fraud is the use of information technology to commit fraud. In the United States, computer fraud is specifically proscribed by the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, which provides for jail time and fines.
Fraud: wrongful or criminal deception intended to result in financial or personal gain.
Hess was able to attack 400 U.S. military computers by using LBL to "piggyback" to ARPANET and MILNET. ARPANET was a civilian wide area network created by the Department of Defense which would later become what is now known as the Internet. MILNET was its military counterpart.
Crime: Espionage or spying involves a government or individual obtaining information considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information
Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. In this context, the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by:
Altering in an unauthorized way. This requires little technical expertise and is not an uncommon form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data, or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes;
Altering, destroying, suppressing, or stealing output, usually to conceal unauthorized transactions: this is difficult to detect;
Altering or deleting stored data;
Altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages, or altering or writing code for fraudulent purposes.
Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems, including bank fraud, identity theft, extortion, and theft of classified information.
A variety of Internet scams target direct to consumers.
Harassment: directed at specific individuals or groups
Threats: intimidation with implication of harm
Goods: Generally physical.... but what constitutes
property? Virtual goods? Items in MMORPGs?
Aaron Swartz case