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Wildlife Conservation Management
Transcript of Wildlife Conservation Management
To look into the types of landscape change that affect temperate and tropical environments
replacing native forest with alternate land-cover
To analyze the similarities and differences in temperate and tropical environments with regard to wildlife conservation and management
Characterized by moderate climate, between tropical and polar zones, and having distinct warm to hot summers and cool to cold winters.
Management in Tropical
Characterized by fairly constant temperatures that remain above 18 degrees Celsius (64 degrees Fahrenheit) all 12 months of the year and seasonal variations are determined by precipitation (dry and wet seasons).
Temperate and Tropical Environments are threatened by the same factors
Replacing Native Forest with Alternate Land-cover
"Policy" and Law
Below the Surface
: logging in an area disturbed by fire, flood, severe wind, etc.
Temperate: salvage logging is widespread and important to wood production
Tropical: the occurrence of salvage logging is unknown, but there is increased potential in fire-prone areas
logging greatly impacts biodiversity and ecological services
reforestation as a means of management alters forest structure and ecosystems
Logging increases fire frequency in both temperate and tropical environments
Need to maintain intact areas where logging is prohibited
Need to create a buffer zone around fire-prone areas to reduce vulnerability to fire
In temperate environments, forests are converted to create exotic plant plantations, agriculture, domestic livestock grazing, and urban settlements
In tropical environments, conversion of land to agricultural land is primary cause of forest loss
Both lead to habitat fragmentation, loss of biodiversity, increased levels of carbon in atmosphere
: Both need to address where plantations are established (not in native forests) and maintenance of native vegetation around plantations
More conservation work is being done
Greater amount of research
Greater conservation capacity
Have realized the importance of forest regeneration after a disturbance
Faster rates of deforestation and land conversion
Weaker government management
Higher need for conservation
Have realized the importance of forest regeneration after disturbance, but not until after temperate researchers discovered this
The greatest research and conservation capacity resides in areas where temperate forests exist, while the areas with the greater need for conservation occur in countries that have limited capacity and means to promote conservation.
Cross-learning between developed and developing countries, and temperate and tropical areas, will introduce successful methods of conservation.
More scientific literature to learn from each other
Using similar technology and terminology to develop uniformity
Leadership from countries like the US and Australia that support both types of environments
Southern Temperate Zone:
New Zealand, part of Australia, the southern most tip of Africa, the very south of South America
Northern Temperate Zone:
United States, China, part of India, most of Canada, most of Europe, and most of Russia
The majority of the world's population lives in the northern temperate zone
located between the Tropic of Cancer at latitude 23 1-2 degrees N. and the Tropic of Capricorn at latitude 23 1-2 degrees S.
located between either the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle or the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle
General temperatures are greater than 10 degrees Celcius (50 degrees Fahrenheit) between 4-8 months of the year.
Two Main Classifications:
1. The continental Temperate Zone:
Fairly large temperature swings.
Example: Eastern Europe.
Very little rain, less than 75 cm (30 in) per year.
2. The Oceanic Temperate Zone:
Rare for the temperature to drop below freezing.
Receives severe storms and 5-10 times more rain than the continental zone.
Temperature swings are not as drastic, average Winter temp: 4 degrees C (40 degrees F)
Summer temp: 21 degrees C (70 degrees F)
Examples of Management in Temperate Environments
Difficult to predict the response to management if you only study 1 species
Must focus on plant and animal communities, as well as vegetation
Need protocol for inventory and monitoring wildlife populations
Recreational hunting is used as a form of wildlife management for population control, specifically for white-tailed deer
Importance in the study of hunter's field behavior in the effectiveness of management
Factors that played a role included:
distance traveled and distribution on the landscape
age, physical fitness, and beliefs/attitudes
Examples of Management in Tropical Environments
State controlled "protectionist" approach to management is ineffective
disadvantages local communities because they lose the right to land and right to hunt
Community-based wildlife management designed to empower local communities to utilize resources to provide long-term economic, social, and ecological benefits
Economic and social development through benefits of management of natural resources
effort to maintain and use natural resources wisely in an attempt to ensure that those resources will be available to future generations
component of conservation in which natural systems are left alone without human disturbance or manipulation
controlling, directing, or manipulating wildlife populations and/or their habitats to
increase a population
decrease a population
stabilize a population
The Effects of Management
But we have to remember that every action affects the lives and culture of people.