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Prohibition DBQ

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Katie Kim

on 26 November 2014

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Transcript of Prohibition DBQ

Prohibition
In the twentieth century prohibition spread by states' passing local option laws, which permitted a unit of local government, such as a county, to prohibit the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages. After an intensive campaign by the Anti-Saloon League and other prohibitionist organizations and reform groups, national prohibition was achieved by the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the federal Constitution in 1919.

What accounts for the success of the prohibition movement in the United States during the era of progressive reform,
1900-1919
? Consider the
social composition
of the prohibitionists, their
motives, strategy and pressure-group tactics
, and the
relationship of prohibitionism to progressive reform.
Introduction
the Gilded Age during American history marked the 2nd Industrial Revolution that focused on coal, steel, and oil. The rise of these industries brought along labor unions and the need for better working conditions. Men would come home to their wives and children exhausted from excruciating hours and treatment, turning to alcohol to act as an outlet from the reality of having
to support
a family.
Alcohol was also prevalent in saloons
in the West
, along with prostitution and gambling due to the lack of social control in temporary mining towns.
Body Paragraph #1: Women
In what way were women responsible for the success of spread the prohibition?
Many successful progressive reforms were led by women
During this time period women took on greater leadership roles, taking societies issues into their own hands
ex:
Settlement Houses - houses run by women that provided things like child care, educational classes etc. for the poor lower class
The greatest reform movement by far was temperance
Women's Christian Temperance Movement - An organization founded in the late nineteenth century in the United States that encouraged total abstinence from alcohol
one of the leading movements to bring about prohibition
nearly 1 million women promoted this reform
Body Paragraph #3:
Clergymen
New Immigrants
Most of the New Immigrants that had been coming to America since the post Civil War Era and would continue to come until the 1920s
They came from Southern and Eastern Europe; vast majority were Catholic
Increased power of the Catholic Church in America
Social Gospelers
Mainly protestant
Found it essential to eliminate poverty, inequality, and economic greed
Outlawing alcohol made them believe these issues would be resolved
Body Paragraph #2: Business' Support for Prohibition
In what way did businessmen influence the success of the prohibition movement?
Many business leaders at the time became more proactive in the progressive movements because it curtailed competition from industries that could not meet the new standards
For example:
Large meatpacker industries in Chicago, such as Swift and Armour, supported progressive movements such as the Pure Food and Drug Act since it drove out smaller less sanitary meatpackers.
They also saw it as opportunity to increase production and reduce labor strife.
Business leaders disdained the consumption of alcohol in the work area because it was detrimental to workforces and productions
Concession Paragraph
Document A
Saloons strip women of husbands, sons, homes, food and virtue
this is what happens when men drink
saloons were monstrosities that promoted poor behavior
Motive for prohibition: men need to rebuild respect he has for himself and others have for im by not drinking
Point of view: Carrie A. Nation
Prominent and radical member of the Women's Christian Temperance Movement
Hated saloons and other drinking establishments
Was best known for attacking saloons, pubs etc. with a hatchet
Document B
Poster for the Anti Saloon League
Point of View: Anti Saloon League
the leading organization lobbying for prohibition in the United States in the early 20th century
Movements such as the Women's Christian Temperance Movement gave rise to this league
The poster highlights the importance of family and the role of the father
message women were trying to get across
you cannot be a good father or husband if you drink alcohol
Successes of the Prohibition Movement in the Progressive Era
By Marissa, Katie, Laurence, Rachel, Tom, and Derek

Components of the Conclusion
Restatement of thesis
Historical Significance (What happens after)
Prohibition repealed with the ratification of the 21st Amendment in 1933
Prohibition had become increasingly unpopular since the advent of the Great Depression
Allowed government to make some money off taxes on alcohol; more jobs created as breweries became legal (concession paragraph)
Shortcomings of prohibition:
People made their own alcohol; bought it illegally
Didn't have a way of making sure it was safe; no government regulation
However, even after the repeal of prohibition, alcohol consumption levels remained lower than before
Connection to another historical period
Modern day prohibition of marijuana
Some people argue for the legalization of marijuana for reasons as listed:
Government can earn revenue by taxing a possible marijuana industry
Government can regulate it to ensure safety
Possibility that as it becomes more available its appeal decreases
Document C
In a resolution adopted by the House of Delegates; (Doc C)
Business leaders saw that alcohol was "detrimental to the human economy"
POV;
Industrial progressives saw a link between alcohol prohibition and an increase in profit sales and production rates
As a result, the prohibition movement received much of its financial backing from business progressives
Although the introduction of prohibition was successful, prohibition itself was an unsuccessful movement
"A large centralized population is economically essential to the success of the liquor traffic" (Doc L)
The economy took a huge toll because of prohibition. It augmented the effects of the Great Depression because the government could not get tax revenue from alcohol sales, plus thousands of brewery workers were unemployed
Many people started to question why there was such pressure on Prohibition instead of other reform movements (Doc Q)
Prohibition is not new; the push for temperance was also very strong during the Second Great Awakening
Puritans also looked upon alcohol not as evil, but as a catalyst to help ease evil acts
Helps to promote civil violence, gambling, casual sex, and other "vice"
By promoting temperance, and therefore sobriety, multiple problems can at least be eased with one action "Two birds with one stone"
Greatest proponents of temperance/prohibition in terms of percentage were clergyman, the moral compass of society (Doc J)
Document J
According to chart, 37.2 percent of all prohibitionist leaders were clergymen (Doc J)
POV
: Clergymen motivated to increase their power saw that prohibition could increase attendence
San Antonio Winery in CA produced 2,000 cases of alter wine before prohibition, but 25,000 by the time it was repealed (Americancatholic.org)
Signifies the increase in church attendance during prohibition
Document I
"Deliverance will come, but it will be from the sober and august Anglo Saxon South, unspoiled... by whiskey crazed God defying anarchists" (Doc I)
Intended Audience:
Written in a pro-prohibition newspaper by a Chicago minister, targeting WASPS
Social Gospelers had this same ideas that temperance would make the world a better place
Pressure from churches made people more favorable of prohibition
Per Capita Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages (Gallons of Pure Alcohol) 1910-1929.
Although prohibition was initially successful, as years passed, it became almost as big a problem as it was before the 18th amendment was ratified, due to the black market
Document D
Similarly, in a survey deemed "Back with the saloon as a Safety First Measure" by businessman Thomas D. West (Doc D);
Businessmen believed that Saloons were the source of "quarreling, trouble, strikes and accidents" in the work area
Historical Context:
The Anti-Saloon League, which primarily targeted nearby saloons for closure, was extremely influential with nearby industries since it helped reduce occurrence of violence in the work area.
As a result, business began at a local level to reduce the overall consumption of alcohol by workers, eventually working its way up to a national level
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