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Transcript of Male Circumcision
It is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. What is Male Circumcision? Medical Research AAP-no medical indication for male circumcision
Circumcision numbers higher in North America then in Europe, but rate of HIV is much lower in Europe.
UTI’s associated with uncircumcised penises, but are rare, not serious, and easily treated. Circumcision associated with lower chance of penile cancer.
Removing the foreskin of 100,000 males would prevent 1 case of penile cancer. Uncircumcision’s Correlation to Cancer Prevalence of the Practice Religion Social Norms
Health Reasons? Oregon Supreme Court Case Civil debate about the circumcision of their child between a mother and a father
D.O.C. Why do you think in today's society it is the norm for males to be circumcised? What ideologies can we draw from male circumcision? After watching the clip how does Social Construction fit into how they were talking about circumcision? Doctors Opposing Circumcision (D.O.C.) Founded by Professor George C. Denniston, M.d., M.P.H.
Organization against non-therapeutic neonatal circumcision
Made up of Physicians from the United States, some of Canada and other nations on 6 different continents. The oldest routine surgical operation: CIRCUMCISION
It began over 12,000 years ago
Circumcision was performed at a wide range of ages in the past
But most constant is that it is performed sometime before marriage History In the U.S. circumcision has become normative.
Many don’t think about it as being surgery but just a part of childbirth procedures.
Western Europe keeps circumcision as a religious performance
And rarely a medical intervention A Normative Procedure Ancient Tribes: Trouble Retracting foreskin = Troubles with fertilization
What about tribes who didn’t know sex was a component of procreation?
There are records of ancient tribes performing circumcision before they knew that sex had anything to do with pregnancy. Ancient Times Sacrifices usually involves blood shed and is something considered valuable.
Circumcision in ancient times was a very bloody procedure.
For this sacrifice it is usually a community public performance. Sacrifice The most well-known origin of circumcision.
Abraham circumcised himself at the age of 99 because God commanded him to do so.
Abraham also circumcised his son Isaac as was told that God commanded him. The Hebrew Bible Why the 8th day? “And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him” (Genesis 21:4).
-Soul is capable to connect with God Negative energies block out God's light
8th day of life body and soul unite, positive energy rests in the penis
Negative energy tries to get into the male Kabbalah: Can anyone tell us the most well known origin of circumcision? Israelite community had to become circumcised
Gain rights of Passover, and Israelite community
“Once a male becomes circumcised, he then gains all the attributes of Israel” Israel Female blood contaminates, male blood sacrifices
"By creating historical and social linkage through sacrificial ritual, circumcision functions to supersede and transcend our most primary maternal and biological system of relationship making patrilineal and patriarchal hierarchy appear “natural and inevitable”” (Pollack, 2011, p. 3). In many cultures marriageable girls are trained to view uncircumcised men as undesirable
This keeps the circumcised males dominant over uncircumcised men
A rite of passage to manhood in many cultures
Power and authority in the community over women and uncircumcised men Power It has been an argument of circumcision on whether it should be performed because of the pain and the infant not being able to choose Pain and Choosing 19th Century: Revolution of sanitary reform towards cleanliness
Cleaner people = higher class than those without hygiene
Circumcision was used to help make the penis easier to clean and less likely to get bacteria. Revolution and Cleanliness Why would our country resort to a surgery over normal washing procedures….
“Most other industrial nations, at different times, underwent transformations in personal cleanliness without resorting to routine circumcision” (Gollaher p. 12). Did we just add a health benefit to make circumcision more accepted? Prior to the last century, circumcision was not performed for any medical reasons but rather cultural, spiritual, and religious reasons
American society performs circumcisions for health reasons although circumcision was usually not a health based practice in history The Last Century One main purpose circumcising males- hygienic reasons
Potential problems easily avoided with basic everyday cleaning.
The penis produces a secretion called smegma
A girl’s genitals have many of the same problems Hygiene More problematic things such as; gallbladders, spleens, appendix, etc.
Don’t remove these things, until something becomes problematic.
Why don’t we do this for circumcision? Why do we remove the foreskin? Medical research found circumcision causes many structural and functional problems in penis.
Skin tags, severe scarring, fistulas.
Penis uncomfortably tight, causes discomfort in erect penis.
Boyle's Study Structural/Functional Problems Believed infants have a higher pain tolerance, this is untrue.
Infants experience duration of crying
Babies symptoms resemble the facial expressions of pain in adults Infant pain tolerance Sometimes not performed with anesthesia
Some babies experience Acute Stress Disorder, and even Post Stress Disorder
Muteness of baby is associated with shock and overwhelming pain.
Men circumcised as a child more likely to react with terror, rage, when confronted with situation interpreted as threatening Trauma Removing foreskin removes 33-50% of neuroreceptors
Glans surface change from moist to a more dry
Quality and enjoyment of sex are decreased
Maintaining/gaining an errection Sexual Dissatisfaction Uncircumcised partners more engaged in sex
Uncircumcised men are able to contact clitoris
Overall circumcised men less satisfied with sex lives, compared to were intact men. Parent’s and Dr.’s don’t know how to care for uncircumcised penis
Foreskin care information not readily available
Available information on circumcised penis, but not uncircumcised
Cleaning the penis is simple. Leave the foreskin alone! Lack of knowledge
Will you choose to circumcise your child? There are no benefits to circumcision! Male Circumcision
(Genital Mutilation) Problem: 1870- 5%
2012- 55% In the United States
1.2 million males are circumcised each year. Male Circumcision Rates in the United States: Why? Why don’t we remove the breast of women routinely?
Women have a 1 and 8 chance of getting breast cancer compared to 1 in 100,000. How did we get to this point? "And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him" (Genesis 21:4)
Circumcision is usually performed on the 8th day of the child's life
Soul is capable to connect with God Why do the children not have a choice on whether they want to be circumcised or not? Is circumcision in some ways abuse? Male Circumcision is a Problem... Essentially circumcision is a cosmetic surgery
Structural functional problems
Lack of Knowledge
Benatar, M., & Benatar, D. (2003). Between prophylaxis and child abuse: The ethics of neonatal male circumcision. The American Journal of Bioethics, 3(2), 35-48.
Carbery, B., Zhu, J., Gust, D. A., Chen, R. T., Kretsinger, K., & Kilmarx, P. H. (2012). Need for physician education on the benefits and risks of male circumcision in the United States. AIDS Education and Prevention, 24(4), 377-386.
Gollaher, D. L. (1994). From ritual to science; The medical transformation of circumcision in America. California Health Care Institute.
Henerey, A. (2004). Evolution of male circumcision as normative control. The Journal of Men's Studies, 12(3), 265-276.
Kim, D., & Pang, M.-G. (2006). The effect of male circumcision on sexuality. Journal Compilation, 619-621.
MacDonald, N., MD MSc. (2011). Male circumcision: Get the timing right. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 872-873.
Morse, D. R., D.D.S., PPh.D. (2002). Male Circumcision: A Cultural and Religious History, and Questionnaire Study. The Journal of Religion and Psychical Research, 183-205.
Pollack, M. (2011). Circumcision: Identity, gender, and power. Academic Search Premiere. References Bollinger, D. (2007). The penis-care information gap: Preventing improper care of intact boys. Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies, 1(2), 205-219.
Boyle, G., Goldman, R., Svoboda, J., & Fernandez, E. (2002). Male Circumcision:
Pain, Trauma and Psychosexual Sequelae. Journal Of Health Psychology, 7(3), 329.
Carbery, B., Zhu, J., Gust, D. A., Chen, R. T., Kretsinger, K., & Kilmarx, P. H. (2012). Need for Physician Education on the Benefits and Risks of Male Circumcision in the United States. AIDS Education & Prevention, 24(4), 377-387.doi:10.1521/aeap.2012.24.4.377
Dritsas L. Below the Belt: Doctors, Debate, and the Ongoing American Discussion
of Routine Neonatal Male Circumcision. Bulletin Of Science, Technology & Society [serial online]. August 2001;21(4):297-311. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed October 9, 2012.
Fox, M., & Thomson, M. (2005). A covenant with the status quo? Male circumcision and the new BMA guidance to doctors. Journal of medical ethics, 31(8), 463-469.
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Harrison D. Rethinking Circumcision and Sexuality in the United States. Sexualities[serial online]. August 2002;5(3):300. Available from: Academic
Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 30, 2012.
Hill, G. (2007). The case against circumcision. The journal of men's health & gender, 4(3), 318-323.
O'Hara, K. K., & O'Hara, J. J. (1999). The effect of male circumcision on the sexual enjoyment of the female partner. BJU International, 8379.
Sorrells, M. L., Snyder, J. L., Reiss, M. D., Eden, C., Milos, M. F., Wilcox, N., & Van Howe, R. S. (2007). Fine-touch pressure thresholds in the adult penis. BJU International, 99(4), 864-869. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06685.x
Tasce, E. (2012). Snip the Snip. Free Inquiry, 32(2), 53-56.
Watson, S. J., & Wiswell, T. E. (1987). Care of Uncircumcised Penis. Pediatrics, 80(5),
Wiswell, T. E., & Geschke, D. W. (1989). Risks Form Circumcision During the First Month of Life Compared With Those for Uncircumcised Boys. Pediatrics, 83(6),
1011. References George C. Denniston. (2012). Commentary on american academy of pediatrics 2012 circumcision policy statement. Retrieved from http://www.doctorsopposingcircumcision.org/
Male circumcision . (2012, August 22). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/malecircumcision/
Fox, M., & Thomson, M. (2005). A covenant with the status quo? male circumsision and the new bma guidance to doctors. Journal of the medical ethics, 31(8), 463-469. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27719454
Lubet, S. Cutting choices. The American lawyer
Hankins, C. (2007). Male circumcision: Implications for women as sexual partners and parents. Reproductive health matters, 15(29), 62-67. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25475292
Morse, D. R. (2002). Male circumcision: A cultural and religious history, and questionnaire study. Journal Of Religion And Psychical Research, 25(4), 183-205.
Bonner, K. (2001). Male circumcision as an hiv control strategy: Not a 'natural condom'. Reproductive health matters, 9(18), 143-155. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3776161
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2012, January 12). Ages and stages: Should the baby be circumsized?. Retrieved from http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/prenatal/decisions-to-make/Pages/Should-the-Baby-be-Circumcised.aspx References
We hope you consider not to mutilate your future child's genitals!! Thank You! Thesis:
There are no benefits to male circumcision Power and Gender