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Environmental Science

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Rosemary Dukelow

on 6 November 2014

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Transcript of Environmental Science

Environmental Science
History of environmental science in America
1700s

1775: Percival Pott makes connection between human contact with soot and cancer, the first recognition of environmental factors and cancer.

1700s Environmental Science-Beginning of Industrial Revolution, which eventually turns to use of coal and other fossil fuels to drive steam engines and other devices. Anthropogenic carbon pollution presumably increases.
1700s Environmental Science
Failure of the monsoons in the late 1760s contribute to the Bengal famine of 1770 where 10 million people die. This forces a change in tax policy in the British Empire, which was a cause of the American War of Independence.
2000s Environmental Science
The 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan demonstrates the dangers of blind faith in authority. Although some reactors are restarted, the triple meltdown effectively ends the 60-year global experiment with nuclear power development.

Evidence of climate change becomes abundant. Erratic weather patterns and crumbling infrastructure signal the beginning of a new and difficult phase for human civilization.

Identify the contribution made by the Boy Scouts of America to environmental science. Include dates, names of people or organizations, and important events.
Boy Scouts of America’s Capitol Area Council Chooses to Go Solar

http://www.prweb.com/releases/meridiansolar/boyscouts/prweb11754827.htm
BSA Contributions to Environmental Science
The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) had been actively advocating training and implementation of Leave No Trace and outdoor ethics principles early in the 70's at such places as Philmont Scout Ranch in Northern New Mexico. A pilot program in the 80s between the BSA and the Bureau of Land Management in the High Uintas Wilderness tried to reach a wide audience. https://lnt.org/
Boy Scouts and Environmental Science
All Eagle Scouts must earn the Environmental Science Merit Badge.

Additionally, scouts may choose to earn merit badges in fields such as Soil & Water Conservation, Forestry, Nature, Reptile & Amphibian Study, and Bird Study. Each of these badges address the environment and how ecosystems affect the various subject matter in question.

Camping, Backpacking, Fishing, and a slew of other badges also address impact as a topic in the requirements to complete those badges.

3. Do ONE activity in EACH of the following categories (using the activities in this pamphlet as the bases for planning and carrying out your projects):
a. Ecology

1. Conduct and experiment to find out how living things respond to changes in their environments. Discuss your observations with your counselor. p. 71 of the manual

Some experiments in life science http://www.funsci.com/fun3_en/exper1/exper1.htm#aquarium
2. Conduct an experiment illustrating the greenhouse effect. Keep a journal of your data and observations. Discuss your conclusions with your counselor. p. 76 of manual
http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/projects/greenhouse.html
3. Discuss what is an ecosystem. Tell how it is maintained in nature and how it survives. p. 23 & p. 72
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem
b. Air Pollution
1. Perform an experiment to test for particulates that contribute to air pollution. Discuss your findings with your counselor. p.78

http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/EnvSci_p009.shtml#summary
Record the trips taken, mileage, and fuel consumption of a family car for seven days, and calculate how many miles per gallon the car gets. Determine whether any trips could have been combined ("chained") rather than taken out and back. Using the idea of trip chaining, determine how many miles and gallons of gas could have been saved in those seven days.
Explain what is acid rain. In your explanation, tell how it affects plants and the environment and the steps society can take to help reduce its effects. p.38 & p. 79
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain
c. Water Pollution
1. Conduct an experiment to show how living things react to thermal pollution. Discuss your observations with your counselor.
p. 82
http://bio1110.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/lab/thermal/
2. Conduct an experiment to identify the methods that could be used to mediate (reduce) the effects of an oil spill on waterfowl. Discuss your results with your counselor. p.81
http://weirdsciencekids.com/Oilspillexperiment.html
3. Describe the impact of a waterborne pollutant on an aquatic community. Write a 100-word report on how that pollutant affected aquatic life, what the effect was, and whether the effect is linked to biomagnification.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill 'Environmental Effects'
d. Land Pollution
1. Conduct an experiment to illustrate soil erosion by water. Take photographs or make a drawing of the soil before and after your experiment, and make a poster showing your results. Present your poster to your patrol or troop. (Per National, “troop” means “unit”.) p.84

http://sciencewithkids.com/Experiments/Physics-experiments/erosion-experiment.html
2. Perform an experiment to determine the effect of an oil spill on land. Discuss your conclusions with your counselor. p.87
http://www.ehow.com/list_6313018_experiments-oil-spills.html
Photograph an area affected by erosion. Share your photographs with your counselor and discuss why the area has eroded and what might be done to help alleviate the erosion.
I think the best place to find erosion is near the river or construction site. Find a place where mud and rocks are falling into the river or creek. There's a place in Roseville where the bike trail fell into the creek.

Alleviating the erosion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erosion_control
e. Endangered Species
1. Do research on one endangered species found in your state. Find out what its natural habitat is, why it is endangered, what is being done to preserve it, and how many individual organisms are left in the wild. Prepare a 100-word report about the organism, including a drawing. Present your report to your patrol or troop.

2. Do research on one species that was endangered or threatened but which has now recovered. Find out how the organism recovered, and what its new status is. Write a 100-word report on the species and discuss it with your counselor. p. 89
3. With your parent's and counselor's approval, work with a natural resource professional to identify two projects that have been approved to improve the habitat for a threatened or endangered species in your area. Visit the site of one of these projects and report on what you saw.
http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/es/Recovery-Planning/Vernal-Pool/es_recovery_vernal-pool-recovery.htm
f. Pollution Prevention, Resource Recovery, and Conservation
1. Look around your home and determine 10 ways your family can help reduce pollution. Practice at least two of these methods for seven days and discuss with your counselor what you have learned.

P. 65 of the manual
10 Ways to to Reduce Pollution

1. Walk or ride your bike, carpool
2. Pack your lunch in reusable containers
3. Use rechargeable batteries
4. Use 'green' cleaning solutions
5. Recycle clothes and household items
6. Volunteer to pick up trash
7. Encourage family to buy local food
8. Suggest to your family not to use chemical fertilizer
9. Use a rake instead of a leaf blower
10. Compost
Determine 10 ways to conserve resources or use resources more efficiently in your home, at school, or at camp. Practice at least two of these methods for seven days and discuss with your counselor what you have learned.
http://www.ecomall.com/greenshopping/20things.htm
3. Perform an experiment on packaging materials to find out which ones are biodegradable. Discuss your conclusions with your counselor. p. 86
http://www.biologycorner.com/2011/08/06/packing-peanuts/
4. Choose two outdoor study areas that are very different from one another (e.g., hilltop vs. bottom of a hill; field vs. forest; swamp vs. dry land). For BOTH study areas, do ONE of the following:
a. Mark off a plot of 4 square yards in each study area, and count the number of species found there. Estimate how much space is occupied by each plant species and the type and number of non-plant species you find. p. 72

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Biomagnification
http://endangeredspecie.com/states/ca.htm
http://esasuccess.org/
http://www.fws.gov/sacramento/es/Critical-Habitat/Home/es_critical-habitat.htm
These are websites that show areas where the fairy shrimp and red-legged frogs are.
http://the-science-mom.com/306/which-packing-material-is-biodegradable-an-ecology-investigation/
4.a. Write a report that adequately discusses the biodiversity and population density of these study areas. Discuss your report with your counselor.
4.a. If you did this, you would need to choose some undeveloped private, or public open space where you could work and not be disturbed for several hours
4.b. Make at least three visits to each of the two study areas (for a total of six visits), staying for at least 20 minutes each time, to observe the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem. Space each visit far enough apart that there are readily apparent differences in the observations. Keep a journal that includes the differences you observe.
4.b Then, write a short report that adequately addresses your observations, including how the differences of the study areas might relate to the differences noted, and discuss this with your counselor.
5. Using the construction project provided (p.90) or a plan you create on your own, identify the items that would need to be included in an environmental impact statement for the project planned.
So, if you do this, you should go right after a rain, later in the summer, when the seasons change, after a long period of no rain
5. Examples of construction projects in the area
https://www.bidclerk.com/construction-bids.Sacramento.California.html

This will only give you the name and area of the project. You can use this to find the name of a project and then search by name.
5. Construction area- for example
6. Find out about three career opportunities in environmental science.
p.68
http://data.bls.gov/search/query/results?cx=013738036195919377644%3A6ih0hfrgl50&q=environmental+science+inurl%3Abls.gov%2Fooh%2F
Sacramento Downtown Arena
http://portal.cityofsacramento.org/Arena/Project-Process
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