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Religion and Life GCSE Revision

Covers matters of life and death, Believing in God, Marriage and the Family and Religion and Community Cohesion

Frances Farrell

on 12 May 2013

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Transcript of Religion and Life GCSE Revision

Matters of Life and Death Believing in God The Exam Marriage and the Family Religion and Community Cohesion GCSE Revision Religion and Life Religious Upbringing
Rites of passage e.g baptism
People who have a religious upbringing are more likely to understand
If you understand, you're more likely to develop faith Religious Experience
Prayer - you may believe in God if he communicates with you
Miracle - you may believe if God breaks a law of nature
Conversion - may believe if you you were converted
Numinous - may believe if you felt God's presence Design - Paley's Watch
Complex things have been designed
The universe is complex
The universe is therefore designed
The designer is God
The world is so beautiful, it must be designed
The world is perfect for humans so was made by a loving God Causation
Everything that begins has a cause
The universe began
The universe must have a cause
The cause is God Some might argue that this is brainwashing
You are giving choice, as you are unlikely to follow a religion unless you have experienced one
Taking a child to church does not make them a christian - it gives them choice
Teenagers often rebel against what their parents believe Why doesn't everyone have a religious experience?
Maybe they do, but don't understand it
They only seem to act as proof to the person who experiences it directly
Maybe they aren't meant to be a proof to anyone else Evolution can explain why the world looks complicated
Maybe God used evolution to create
Is it a good design e.g suffering, parasitic wasp
Maybe suffering has a purpose Why doesn't God need a cause?
God is timeless - no beginning, no cause
Why don't we argue that the universe is timeless?
The Big Bang suggests it has a beginning Unanswered Prayer
Not all prayers are answered - so no one is listening to them
A loving God would answer their prayers
People pray for the end of suffering to no avail, so people lose faith
Unanswered prayers mean the person can't feel the presence of God Scientific explanations
The universe was created by the Big Bang, not God
The universe was created 14 billion years ago, when it was a singularity
There was an event like an explosion
The universe started its expansion
Science can give evidence, making it reliable
The Problem of Evil
An all powerful God would be able to stop suffering, but he doesn't
A loving God would look after believers, but he doesn't
Innocent people suffer, so he could not exist
An all knowing God would know when suffering is about to occur and stop it, but he doesn't
There is natural and moral evil
If God created everything, he must have created Evil too - why would he do that? All prayers are answered, sometimes the answer is no
We pray for the wrong things (selfish
God has a plan but it's beyond us
Maybe we should answer the prayers Where did the singularity come from?
What caused the Big Bang?
Some Christians think Science is wrong and the Bible is right
Some think the Bible is answering a different question - WHY not HOW
Science does not disprove the existence of God Suffering exists because we have free will
Suffering is a punishment for our sin (Adam and Eve)
God wants us to fix the world
Maybe suffering has a purpose (we can only learn to forgive is someone hurts us) Life after Death Abortion Euthanasia Non-religious reasons for believing in Life after Death
Ghosts - spirits live on after the body dies
Mediums - communicating with death spirits
Reincarnation - After death the soul is reborn into another body
Near Death Experiences - Experiences recalled but some people who have died then been resuscitated e.g tunnel of light Christian beliefs about Life after Death

Resurrection of the body - body remains in the grave until the end of time when it's raised up for judgement
Believe this because :
Jesus' tomb was empty
The creeds emphasise a physical resurrection

Immortality of the soul - the soul passes on to the afterlife as soon as the body dies
Believe this because
On the cross Jesus said "Today you will be with me in paradise
The creeds speak of the communion of saints - they're already in the afterlife Muslim beliefs about Life after Death

The body and soul are separated at death
They get reunited at judgement and those whose good deeds outnumber their bad get to Paradise
Those whose bad deeds outweigh the good are sent to hell until purified

Why do they believe this?
Akhirah (afterlife) is one of the 3 key beliefs to a muslim
Qur'an (words of Allah) talks of the afterlife
Every prophet sent by Allah talked of the afterlife Some people don't believe in Life after Death
No evidence of an afterlife
Mediums trick people/can be faked
If the body dies and decays, how can it be raised?
People have invented the idea to make themselves feel better about death
In a scientific age we should let go of these outdated ideas What is Abortion?

Pro-choice - belief that abortion should remain legal
Pro-life - Campaigns to reduce or end abortion

The UK Law
Legal up to 24 weeks if
Mother's life is at risk
Social clause - Risk to physical/mental health of mother.
Severe handicap
Could affect other children in the family
Legal after 24 weeks if
Mother's life is at risk
Severe handicap Christian views on abortion Roman Catholics and Evangelical Protestants

Abortion is always wrong because
Sanctity of life
God created life, only he can take it
Life begins at contraception
6th commandment - do not kill
Christians should show love to their neighbour including the unborn child

Other Protestants

Abortion is wrong but sometimes it's the lesser of two evils
Jesus said love your neighbour - abortion could be the most loving thing to do
Christian duty to remove suffering
May believe life begins at another point (not contraception Muslim views on Abortion

Traditional view - abortion is permitted before ensoulment (120 days)
"Whoever has killed a soul, it is as though he has murdered all mankind" - Qur'an
Muslims believe in the sanctity of life
After death, muslims must explain why they aborted a child
Can happen after ensoulment if the mother's life is at risk because
Foetus wouldn't exist without her
Her life is established
She is part of a family
Abortion is never permitted if the family fear they can't provide for the baby

More relaxed view - allowed if severe deformity, rape or incest, adulterous pregnancy or unplanned pregnancy What is Euthanasia?
- painless killing of someone dying from a painful disease

Voluntary - consent is provided
Non-voluntary - consent can't be provided (e.g coma, child)
Active - they die from additional intervention (e.g lethal injection)
Passive - they die from their condition, usually when treatment is withdrawn Christian views on Euthanasia
Against because
Life is sacred and should be preserved
6th commandment - do not kill
God decides when we die
All life is worth living, regardless of quality
Christians must not break the law

Some Christians however think it's fine to give painkilling drugs even if they shorten a life and to turn off life support machines if there are no signs of life Muslim views on Euthanasia
Against because
Life is sacred and given by Allah
Allah decides when someone dies
It is seen as suicide, which is not permitted
Suffering is a test
The idea of a life not worth living doesn't exist in Islam
It is pleasing to Allah to care for the old and the sick
Qur'an tells a story of a soldier who killed himself then was forbidden to enter paradise

The withdrawal of treatment is sometimes permitted, as is the turning off of life-support machines. Food, drink and nursing care should never be withheld Sex outside of marriage Divorce Family Life Homosexuality Contraception Christian View

Adultery is wrong - Jesus and the Old Testament said it was wrong
Bible teaches premarital is wrong - Christians obey it
Some liberal Christians think sex before marriage is OK as long as the couple love each other and intend to marry - Jesus taught love is the most important thing
St Paul preached against sexual immorality
Sex outside of marriage is regarded as adultery - 7th commandment Muslim View

Qur'an states there should be no sex before marriage
Islamic law (Shari'ah) forbids sex outside marriage because the main purpose of sex is for making children which you should do when married
Adultery is strongly condemned - forbidden in the Qur'an and treated as a capital punishment in the Shari'ah
Condemned because it breaches the marriage contract
Can break up a family
Can lead to unwanted pregnancies/STIs Christian View

Roman Catholics - no divorce because
Jesus banned divorce
It is breaking a promise with God
Catholics do have tribunals that that can decide a marriage never existed
Catholics aren't allowed to remarry in the church after a divorce

Protestants and Orthodox - the lesser of two evils
If the marriage isn't working and will never work, it's fine
God is always prepared to forgive sins
Jesus allowed divorce for adultery Muslim View
The Qur'an allowed divorce
Shari'ah law allows divorce
Might be the lesser of two evils
Marriage is a contract so it can be ended
The couple can then go on to marry and have more children Christians
God created families and they are at the heart of the the religion
The marriage ceremony says it is the foundation of family life and where children should be brought up
Christian parents have a duty to bring their children up Christian and teach them about their religion
Christians should care for their elderly parents e.g put them in a good nursing home Muslims
Family life is at the heart of Muslim society and is Allah's creation
Muslims should care for their extended family e.g have elderly relatives live with the family
The Hadith says "the best of you are those who are kind to your family"
Muslim parents have a duty to care for their children. They should provide, teach about Islam
Children should obey and respect their parents, regardless of age Christian View
There is a very wide spectrum of views
Evangelical christians - homosexuality is a sin
Roman Catholics - homosexuality isn't a sin, but homosexual acts are
Protestants - homosexual relationships are acceptable and homosexuals are welcome, but their relationships aren't equal to Christian marriage
Liberal Protestants - there should be complete equality for homosexuals if they have a stable relationship
Sex outside of marriage is wrong and homosexuals can't get married
Sexual relations are procreative
Some people are born gay Muslims
Homosexuality is wrong because
It's condemned in the Qur'an
Pregnancy can't happen - it's not creative sex. Muslims should aim to have children
It's considered unnatural and is punishable under Islamic law. Homosexuals can be punishment. Under Shari'ah law, the punishment can be death
Some believe it's acceptable because
Islam is a religion of tolerance
God created all people and loves them
Some people are born gay Christian Views
Roman Catholics - married Catholics should be open to God's gift of a child
It might encourage adultery
Some thing contraception is the same as abortion
It could interfere with God's plan for life
All artificial forms of contraception are forbidden - "natural family planning" is allowed
Those in favour say:
Sex was given by God to be enjoyed and to strengthen a couples' love
It is acceptable so you can plan the size of a family to make sure the quality of life is good Muslim Views
Contraception is wrong and should be regarded as a gift from Allah
Mohammed accepted Contraception
It can be used to limit the size of a family for the good of its members and the health of the mother
Contraception should not be used to prevent a couple from ever having children because children are a gift from Allah
Sterilisation is forbidden, but the pill and condoms are acceptable to most Muslims Race/Ethnicity Religion/Faith Gender Community Cohesion Change in the UK
Women are encouraged to have careers - Equal Pay Act 1970, Sex Discrimination Act 1975 - they can be financially dependent
Men are no longer seen as the sole providers
Women are still expected to perform traditionally female jobs
Women are still expected to be the main child carer
Politically, men and women are equal Gender and Christianity
Evangelical Christians - men and women should have different roles - women at home, men at work. St Paul said women should obey their husbands. Gen. 2 says Adam was created first
Liberal Protestants - men and women are equal. They have men and women priests. Jesus treated women equally - Mary Magdalene
Roman Catholics - men and women are equal and should have equal roles but only men can be priests - Jesus appointed men as disciples and priests are the disciples' successors Gender and Islam
Traditional View -
Men and women should have different roles - women care for the children, men provide for the family. The Qur'an says men should provide for women.
Equal but different - their roles are different but one is not superior to the other
The imam who says the prayers is always male
Modern View -
Men and women are equal in religion and education - women worshipped in the mosque at the time of the Prophet
Qur'an says men and women are equal
Men and women have always worshipped in the same way The UK and multi-ethnicity
Develops an understanding between different people
Less chance of war
People can become educated about different cultures
Children raised in such a society will not be aware of racial differences
Different races have different cultures which can cause friction
The UK is multi-ethnic and there is still racism
Racial discrimination can occur Christians and racial harmony
The Bible teaches everyone is equal - God created all humans like himself
Saint Peter was given a vision by God showing him God treats everyone equally
Jesus' story of the Good Samaritan, healed a Roman's servant, a black African helped him carry his cross
Jesus taught everyone is equal Muslims and racial harmony
Ummah - the worldwide Muslim community is made up of all races
Muslims are told to wear white garments to show their equality on the Haj
The Qur'an teaches racism is wrong
When Islam began, the first person that the Prophet made read out the call the prayer was a Black Ethiopian The UK and multi-faith
All religions have equal rights in the UK
Increase tolerance and acceptance
Allows religious freedom
Provides opportunities for conversion
People might try and convert you to their religion
People might feel confused by the different faiths
Society could be divided by the different religions
Interfaith marriages could pose problems Issues raised for Religion
Bringing up children - they may choose to leave their parents' religion
Interfaith marriages can cause problems - e.g what religion to bring their children up, type of ceremony etc
Faiths will keep trying to convert each other - both Muslims and Christians are taught theirs is the correct religion The Government
Financially supports groups working for community cohesion
Makes community cohesion part of the curriculum
1976 Race relations act - makes it against the law to discriminate against someone based on race etc
2001 Crime and Disorder act - higher penalties when there's evidence of racial or religious hostility Religions
Discover what's the same in their religions
Develop ways to help interfaith marriages
Develop ways on how to bring up children in two religions
Joining in special groups to promote community cohesion The Media
East is East
Make Bradford British
Question time (with Nick Griffin) Topics likely to come up (8/6 mark questions)
Teachings on family life
Multi-ethnic societies
The Causation argument
Religious Upbringing
Muslim/Christian views on life after death
Top Tips for Part Ds Refer to a religion
Keep your answers simple and to the point
Try to list 3 points. If you can't, make one detailed
Think in terms of the religions you're studying. If you forget everything, you can still use broader arguments 1 minute = 1 sentence = 1 mark Top tips for part B and Cs Try to make 1 detailed point equal 2 sentences
To make a point detailed, you just need to add evidence to support it. E.g

If someone has a personal experience of God they will believe in God, for example a miracle

Make sure you emphasise when you make a new point by leaving a line between the new and the previous one
Quoting evidence from the Bible or the Qur'an will generally get you extra marks 1 minute = 1 sentence = 1 mark Learn the key worlds!
They are worth an entire grade boundary and the marks are so easy they're not worth losing out on.

If you stick with the mark a minute rule, you will have 5 minutes to go over the questions beforehand and 5 minutes to add to the paper afterwards

The more you revise, the quicker you will answer the questions so the more time you will have to work on the tricky questions and go over the exam at the end. 1 minute = 1 sentence = 1 mark
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