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A/P - The Cardiovascular System

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Alicia Abel

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of A/P - The Cardiovascular System

The Cardiovascular System Blood Connective tissue Made of various types of cells and cell fragments (formed elements) surrounded by blood plasma (extracellular matrix) pH between 7.35–7.45 Temperature is about 1 degree Celsius higher than body temperature Functions of blood Transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, heat, and waste Regulation of pH, body temperature, and water content of cells Protection against injury and disease Blood plasma Formed elements Mostly water (91.5%) Proteins (7%) Also contains electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, enzymes, gasses, and wastes Albumins - regulate osmotic pressure Antibodies (immunoglobulins) - protect body from antigens Fibrinogen - essential for blood clotting Red blood cells (RBCs) White blood cells (WBCs) Platelets Cell fragments Contain hemoglobin Oxygen-carrying protein Gives blood red color Biconcave discs - greater surface area for diffusion Have no nucleus - cannot divide Generated by cells in red bone marrow through process called erithropoiesis About 1000x more RBCs in blood than WBCs Granular leukocytes (contain granules that can be seen when stained) Two types of WBCs: Contain nuclei Move by ameboid motion Agranular leukocytes Eosinophils Basophils Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Often involved with immune response Contain granules that stain red Respond to allergic reactions, parasites, and autoimmune diseases Contain granules that stain blue-purple Respond to allergic reactions, leukemias, cancers, hypothyroidism Small granules that stain pale lilac Nucleus has 2-5 lobes Phagocytes that respond to bacterial infection, burns, and stress Large nucleus that stains darkly Respond to viral infections, some leukemias Kidney or horseshoe shaped nucleus Respond to chronic diseases Are macrophages (large-eaters) Stop blood loss from damaged blood vessels by forming a platelet plug Contain chemicals that also promote blood clotting Blood Groups and Blood Types Surface of RBCs have genetically determined antigens Blood is categorized into different blood groups based on presence or absence of specific antigens Two major blood groups: ABO Rh Two antigens: antigen A and antigen B Type A blood = only antigen A Type B blood = only antigen B Type AB blood = both antigen A and B Type O blood = neither antigen A nor B Rh positive (A+, B+, O+, AB+) = have Rh antigen Rh negative (A-, B-, O-, AB-) = no Rh antigen One antigen: Rh antigen Coronary Circulation The Heart Wall Cardiac Output (CO) Conduction System of the Heart About the size of your fist The Heart Cardiac Cycle Major Vessels of the Heart Chambers of the Heart (4 total) Location In thorax between the lungs Pointed apex inferior and directed toward left Broad base superior Pericardium Membrane that surrounds and protects the heart Fibrous pericardium Dense connective tissue Tough, inelastic Attaches to diaphragm Prevents overstretching, provides protection, anchors heart Serous pericardium Thinner, delicate membrane Forms double layer around heart Serous fluid found between the two layers (reduces friction) Epicardium Myocardium Endocardium outside layer middle layer inner layer connective tissue gives smooth, slippery surface to heart cardiac muscle thin layer of connective tissue smooth lining for heart chambers and valves Atria - receiving chambers Ventricles - discharging chambers Right atrium Left atrium Right ventricle Left ventricle Heart Valves Allow blood to flow in only one direction Atrioventricular valves - between atria and ventricles Semilunar valves - between ventricles and arteries Bicuspid valve (left) Tricuspid valve (right) Pulmonary semilunar valve Aortic semilunar valve Aorta Pulmonary arteries (right and left) Vena cava (superior and inferior) Pulmonary veins (2 left, 2 right) Leaves left ventricle Leave right ventricle Enter right atrium Enter left atrium Blood in the heart chambers does not nourish the myocardium The heart has its own nourishing circulatory system Coronary arteries supply oxygenated blood to the myocardium Coronary veins carry deoxygenated blood from the myocardium Coronary veins drain into the coronary sinus Coronary sinus empties into the right atrium Autorhythmic fibers - generate action potentials repeatedly and without external stimulus Heart muscles contract without nerve impulses in a regular, continuous way 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node in right atrium begins excitation Acts as pacemaker 2. Atrioventricular (AV) node between two atria is stimulated by action potential of SA node 3. Atrioventricular (AV) bundle is stimulated by action potential. 4. Bundle branches 5. Purkinje fibers conduct action potential from apex up Action potential moves from atria to ventricles Both right and left bundle branches Move toward apex of heart Causes ventricles to contract, pushing blood up through semilunar valves Causes atria to contract Includes all of the events associated with one heartbeat Atrial systole (about 0.1 sec) Both atria contract and ventricles are relaxed Ventricular Systole (about 0.3 sec) Both ventricles contract and atria are relaxed (in atrial diastole) Relaxation period (about 0.4 sec) Both atria and ventricles are relaxed Amount of blood pumped by each of the ventricles in one minute. Measured in mL/min Stroke volume (SV) Volume pumped by each ventricle during each contraction. Measured in mL/beat Heart rate (HR) Number of heartbeats per minute. Measured in beats/min CO = SV x HR Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Left pulmonary veins Right pulmonary veins Left pulmonary artery Right pulmonary artery Held in place by cordae tendenae (heart strings)
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