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America on the World Stage
Transcript of America on the World Stage
Teller Amendment - US would not annex Cuba after Span-Amer. War
Platt Amendment - US could intervene in Cuba whenever necessary
"Open Door" in China
Many countries interested in China.
Spheres of influence: areas of economic & political control
Open Door Policy: US would have equal access to China's consumers
Cuba (Spanish colony) declared independence (1895)
Spain sent army to violently crush rebellion
Response in the US:
- sympathetic to rebels
- "yellow journalism" - sensationalized news
- worried about trade with Cuba (& in the Pacific)
The U.S. Becomes a World Power
How did the Spanish-American War mark a turning point in American history?
The U.S.S. Maine before and after its destruction-one of the causes of the Spanish-American War
Foreign policy-the set of guidelines and practices that a nation follows when dealing with other nations
Diplomacy-the art of negotiating with other countries
Realism-the belief that our way of dealing with other countries should be guided by what is in our nation’s best interests; our policies should always be those that benefit the American people
Idealism-the belief that our way of dealing with other countries should be guided by our values and our ideals; our policies should always promote our core values like democracy, liberty and human rights
Let’s define a few key terms before we start this unit…
Describe this cartoonist’s view of US foreign policy under President McKinley. Did it seem to reflect realist or idealistic principles?
Business and political leaders with dreams of creating an American empire were expanding into new markets and seizing control of territory abroad.
But, expansionism or imperialism on the part of a country founded on freedom from colonization troubled many US citizens.
What would the US do? Let’s take a look at how it had conducted its foreign affairs before this point.
By the 1890s, the US was at a crossroads.
Does the political cartoonist seem to favor expansionism? How can you tell?
George Washington Advocates Neutrality and Unilateralism
George Washington established two key principles of US foreign policy: neutrality and unilateralism.
He issued this advice in response to the outbreak of war between France and Great Britain in 1793.
In his farewell address which was published in newspapers in 1796, he urged the US not to take sides in conflicts between other countries, but to remain always neutral.
He also advised future leaders to avoid “foreign entanglements” which they interpreted as a warning against making military or political alliances with foreign powers. In other words, the US should “go it alone” in its relations with other countries.
The War of 1812: Defending Neutrality
As a neutral nation in the war between France and Great Britain, the US agreed not to give aid to either side in the conflict.
They also agreed not to let warring parties use their harbors or territories as bases of operation.
In return, the United States claimed the right of a neutral nation to live in peace without fear of attack and to trade freely with other nations, even those at war.
President Adams and President Jefferson used every tool short of war to defend the right of American ships to trade freely without being attacked.
Neither had much success. Both France and Britain seized US ships to prevent goods from reaching the enemy’s ports. The British also began impressing American sailors to serve in their navy.
How might this painting have been used as propaganda during the conflict over US neutrality?
The War of 1812: Defending Neutrality
In 1809, President Madison took up the challenge of defending neutrality.
When the British still refused to end attacks on neutral ships, Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war.
Some Congressmen voted for war out of idealistic principles: to defend “free trade and sailors’ rights.”
Some Congressmen were motivated more by realism. They believed that a war with Great Britain would give the US the opportunity to expand into Canada.
The War of 1812 lasted two years. With no victory in site, peace talks began in Ghent, Belgium in 1814
The Treaty of Ghent which ended the conflict, established the peace, but it left the issues that caused the war unresolved.
But the young nation had stood up to Britain.
What pattern do you notice when examining this map of major battles from the War of 1812?
Monroe Doctrine Bans Colonization
When President Monroe took office, he faced several challenges from European countries trying to claim or reclaim territory in the Western Hemisphere.
Russia wanted to expand southward from Alaska and Spain wanted to launch an effort to recolonize all the countries who had just declared their independence in Latin America.
Britain offered to join with the US in warning European leaders against trying to colonize any more of the Western Hemisphere.
Madison chose a more unilateral approach. In a speech to Congress in 1823, he warned that “the American continents” were closed to “future colonization.” He also stated that any interference by Europe in the new Latin American republics would be seen as “dangerous to our peace and safety.”
The twin policies of non-colonization and non-interference in the Western Hemisphere became known as the Monroe Doctrine.
President James Monroe
How does this cartoon illustrate the meaning of the Monroe Doctrine?
In the 1800s, many Americans felt it was natural that the US would expand its borders all the way across the continent. This idea was referred to in newspapers and by politicians as manifest destiny.
For the most part, the US added territory through diplomacy rather than by fighting wars.
President Jefferson doubled the size of the US in 1803 when he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France.
US diplomats convinced Spain to cede Florida to the US in 1819.
In 1846, Britain signed a treaty with the US dividing the region called Oregon at the 49th parallel.
In 1867, the US purchased Alaska from Russia.
The US originally claimed the entire Oregon territory, even the British controlled section. Expansionists called for war if Britain refused to leave. Their rallying cry was “fifty-four forty or fight!” Where did they get this expression?
Manifest Destiny Continued
The US continued to expand across the continent; however it wasn’t always possible to add territory through diplomacy.
In 1845, the US annexed Texas which had recently declared its independence from Mexico. Mexico had never accepted the loss of Texas and was angered at what it saw as a US land grab.
There was also a disagreement over the border of Texas and Mexico. Texans claimed the Rio Grande as its southern border, but Mexico insisted it was much farther north.
President Polk sent a diplomat to Mexico City to try to negotiate the border dispute. At the same time the US offered to buy New Mexico and California, an extremely insulting suggestion in the eyes of Mexican officials.
Which river did Mexico use as the border between it and Texas instead of the Rio Grande?
The US-Mexican War
The US government then provoked a clash with Mexico over the border dispute. This led to the US- Mexican War.
Mexico lost and was forced to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in which it formally recognized the annexation of Texas with the Rio Grande as the southern border.
In addition it ceded a huge region stretching from Texas to California called the Mexican Cession. The US paid Mexico $15 million in return.
What color is the territory that the US acquired from Mexico after the US-Mexican War?
Adding California and Oregon to its territory gave the United States a new window on the Pacific Ocean.
Business leaders were eager to open up new markets for American goods across the Pacific in China and Japan.
Many European nations were expanding their overseas markets by acquiring colonies in Africa and Asia.
This new wave of colonization was influenced by a policy known as imperialism or empire building.
The colonies acquired by the imperialist powers supplied resource for the industries and served as markets for their manufactured goods.
While some Americans were reluctant to join this rush for empire, many were happy to acquire islands that could serve as supply stations for U.S. ships in the Pacific.
Many people wondered if America would join Europe and begin colonizing foreign lands.
What does this political cartoon imply that the US chose to do, expand or restrict itself to the continental US?
De Lome Letter - written by Spanish ambassador, insults Pres. McKinley
Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine
- sent to protect U.S. interests
- mysterious explosion
- 258 U.S. sailors killed
- Spain blamed
1st action not in Cuba, but at Manila Bay (Philippines)
Troops gathered in Tampa to prepare attack on Cuba
- San Juan Hill (T.R. & the Rough Riders)
- Santiago Harbor: all Spanish ships destroyed
A "splendid little war" - only lasted 7 mos.
Treaty of Paris - signed Dec. 1898
US paid $20 mil for Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam
Turning point - US now acquiring territories internationally
Growing debate between imperialists & anti-imperialists
Imperialists vs. Anti-Imperialists
Rejected "Liberty for All" idea
Threatened democracy at home
Costs too much $
Would bring in foreign competition
Preparing countries for democracy
"New Frontier" abroad
Access to foreign markets - overproduction
Protect American security - "Great White
China's Response: Boxer Rebellion
Meant to scare foreigners, keep them out
Crushed by international force