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Chapter Two: Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships

Research Perspectives on Leadership
by

Diane Goggins

on 28 January 2011

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Transcript of Chapter Two: Traits, Behaviors, and Relationships

Know Your Strengths The Trait Approach Behavior Approaches Individualized Leadership Entrepreneurial Leadership Matching Leaders with Roles Traits themselves are not sufficient to guarantee effective leadership. Overall Objective: Understand the importance of traits and behaviors in the development of leadership theory and research. The distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and appearance. Julia Stewart, CEO, DineEquity First job: server @ IHOP
2002: CEO of IHOP
2007: CEO of DineEquity, taking over Applebees Personal Characteristics:
ambition
persistence
persuasiveness
enthusiasm Personal traits are what captured the imagination of the earliest leadership researchers. But, many leaders share the same traits but have others that are dissimilar. Everyone has a unique set of qualities to bring to a leadership role. Interdependence is the key to effective leadership. Interdependence is a dynamic of being mutually and physically responsible to, and sharing a common set of principles with others. "Independent thinking alone is not suited to interdependent reality. Independent people who do not have the maturity to think and act interdependently may be good individual producers, but they won't be good leaders or team players. They're not coming from the paradigm of interdependence necessary to succeed in marriage, family, or organizational reality." Becoming an effective leader requires discovering your own unique strengths and learning how to make the most of them. Being an effective leader does not mean you have to be good at everything. Not having the "right" characteristics. Stephen Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Do you think that people are born with traits that make them natural leaders? The Great Man Approach:
A leadership perspective that sought to identify the inherited traits leaders posessed that distinguished them from people who were not leaders. 1948 Literature Review:
Stogdill
Examined more than 100 trait approach studies
The importance of a particular trait is often relative to the situation.
Possessing certain personal characteristics is no guarantee of success. Timeline intelligence
initiative
interpersonal skills
self-confidence
drive for responsibility
personal integrity 1948 - 1970 Subsequent Review:
160 trait approach studies
Identified many of the same traits
Again, the value of traits varies within a particular organization. agressiveness
independence
tolerance for stress Emerging Research:
Numerous surveys point to optimism as the single most common characteristic in top executives. self-confidence: knowing and trusting oneself
Leadership example: Mike Tomlin http://www.nfl.com/videos/nfl-playoffs/09000d5d81dc9003/Tomlin-Destiny-is-what-you-make-it honesty: truthfulness and nondeception
integrity: being whole, integrated, and acting in accordance with solid moral principles drive: high motivation that creates a high effort level by a leader http://videolectures.net/yaleecon252s08_shiller_lec20/ Behaviors can be learned more readily than traits, enabling leadership to be accessible to all. Autocratic v. Democratic Leadership:

autocratic: a leader who tends to centralize authority and derive power from position, control of rewards, and coercion (threats).
democratic: a leader who delegates authority to others, encourages participation, relies on subordinates' knowledge for completion of tasks, and depends on suboridnate respect for influence. Research:
University of Iowa
groups of children observed
groups with autocratic leaders performed highly as long as the leader was present
autocratic-led groups were hostile and unhappy
groups with democratic leaders performed almost as good as groups with autocratic leaders.
democratic-led groups had positive feelings Research suggests that the extent to which leaders should be boss-centered or subordinate-centered depends on circumstances. democratic: help followers develop decision-making skills democratic: help followers perform well without supervision autocratic: time pressure autocratic: follwers have low skills Research:
Ohio State Studies
100's of employees surveyed
list of 2,000 leader behaviors
analysis resulted in two categories: consideration and initiating structure
consideration describes the extent to which a leader cares about subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust. initiating structure describes the extent to which a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates' work activities toward goal achievement. Research:
University of Michigan Studies
effectiveness of leaders was determined by productivity of the subordinate group
established two types of leaderhip behavior, employee-centered and job-centered. employee-centered leaders display a focus on the human needs of their subordinates. job-centered leaders direct activities toward scheduling, accomplishing tasks, and achieving efficiency. different from Ohio State studies, because these styles are in opposition to one another. The Leadership Grid University of Texas
based on concern for people and concern for production Theories of a "High-High" Leader:
research led to people-oriented and task-oriented behaviors
the findings raised three questions:
1. whether these two dimensions are the most important behaviors of leadership
2. whether people orientation and task orientation exist together in the same leader, and how
3. whether people can actually change themselves into leaders high on people and/or task-orientation looks at the specific relationship between a leader and each individual follower. Leaders develop a unique relationship with each subordinate or group member which determines how the leader behaves and how the member responds. dyads: series of two-person interactions. exchange: what each party gives to and receives from the other 3 stages: 1. Awareness of a relationship between a leader and each individual
2. Specific attributes of the exchange relationship
3. Ability of the leader to develop parterships with each group member Vertical Dyad Lineage Model argues for the importance of the dyad formed by a leader with each member of the group. Leaders' behaviors and traits have different effects across followers, creating in-groups and out-groups Leader-Member Exchange explores how leader-member relationships develop over time and how the quality of exchange relationships impacts outcomes. Leadership is individualized for each subordinate. Each dyad involves a unique exchange independent of other dyads. Partnership Building when leaders offered a high-quality relationship to all group members, the followers who responded improved their performance. Leaders can reach out to create a positive exchange with every subordinate. Doing so increases performance. Entrepreneurs are leaders of innovation and change Entrepreneurs assume the risks and reap the rewards or profits of the business. Entrepreneurial leaders exist within established organizations where they:
pursue new opportunities
display creativity
are action oriented Different personal characteristics and behavioral styles might be better suited to different types of leadership roles. Operational Role closest to a traditional, vertically oriented management role, where an executive has direct control over people and resources to accomplish results vertically oriented Colaborative Role the leader often works behind the scenes and uses personal power to influence others and get things done.

Collaborative leaders need excellent people skills in order to network, build relationships, and obtain agreement. horizontally oriented Advisory Role A leadership role that provides advice, guidance, and suppourt to other people and departments in the organization.

These leaders need high levels of honesty and integrity to build trust and keep the organization on solid ethical ground. Studies explored:
communication frequency
value agreement
characteristics of followers
job satisfaction
job climate
commitment
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