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Task 4

term explanation
by

jing gao

on 29 July 2013

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Transcript of Task 4

Term
Explanation

Now read passage about social interaction.
On taking notes:
Revealing Coloration
Many animals use coloration to protect themselves from predators. One defensive strategy involving the use of coloration is what is known as revealing coloration. Animals employing this strategy have an area of bright color on some part of their body; this bright color is usually hidden from predators' view. When approached by a predator, the animal suddenly reveals the area of bright color; this unexpected display of color startle[give a sudden shock or surprise to]s or confuses the predator and provides the would-be prey with an opportunity to escape.
TPO8-4
FORMAT = Q 3
READ,
LISTEN,

SPEAK
READING:
45''-50'' 80-120words
Academic subject : life science, physical science and humanities.
----no outside knowledge is needed.
LISTENING:
1'20''-1'50''
a professor give a brief excerpt from a lecture on that subject
Difference between reading passage and listening material
Reading passage
Listening material
definition of a process
or principle
example or
counterexample
Same subject
General & abstract terms
More specifically &
concretely
Background
info
SPEAKING:
1'
Orally summarize the listening materials

==that's what the professor has done
Sample Answer:
In this set of materials, the reading passage describes the principle of
animal domestication

and the listening passage is a lecture by a professor on the same topic.

According to the reading passage,
non-terrestrial animal are more easily domesticated than those terrestrial animals.

In the listening passage, the professor discusses the same topic. According to the professor,
herd animals can be easily domesticated if they have a hierarchical social structure and are not territorial, and that this is why it is easier to domesticate horses than antelopes. Because horses’ hierarchical social structure makes them willing to follow one another and thus allows a human being to act as their leader. And horses are not territorial; they can be harnessed together without fighting. While antelopes are territorial, male antelopes fight if they are together, and that because antelopes do not have a social hierarchy, humans can’t control them by acting as their leader.
People deal with each other every day. This interaction is at the heart of social life. The study of social interaction is concerned with the influence people have over one another's behavior. People take each other into account in their daily behavior and in fact, the very presence of others can affect behavior. For example, one principle of social interaction, audience effects, suggests that individuals' work is affected by their knowledge that they are visible to others, that the presence of others tends to alter the way people behave or perform an activity.
notes:

influ .each other behav.

audience effects

presence of others alter people behav
listening materials:
v.s.
Question Type
TPO1-
Explain groupthink and its effect using the example of the computer company.
TPO2-
Explain how the examples of tying shoes and learning to type demonstrate the principle of audience effects.
TPO3-
Using the example discussed by the professor, explain what cognitive dissonance is and how people often deal with it.
Question Type
TPO1-
Explain
groupthink and its effect
using the example of
the computer company.
TPO2-
Explain how the examples
of tying shoes and learning to type
demonstrate the principle
of audience effects.
TPO3-
Using the example
discussed by the professor
, explain what
cognitive dissonance
is and how
people often deal with it.
Question Type
TPO1-
Explain
groupthink and its effect
using the example of
the computer company.
TPO2-
Explain how the examples
of tying shoes and learning to type
demonstrate the principle
of audience effects.
TPO3-
Using the example
discussed by the professor
, explain what
cognitive dissonance
is and how
people often deal with it.
term
term
term
What type of subject is the reading materials?
A. campus related B. academic issue
Where can these kind of materials be found?
A. novels B. text books C. comics D. biographies
What if they are selected from the comics?
And what if they are selected from the text books?
The type of materials
push ourselves
Do we need to read through the whole?
Title
Term
The term explain part
logical relationship
TPO2-
term
is concerned with;
term
suggests
TPO5-
term
is the strategy of
TPO6,9,10,11-
term
is;
terms
are/is called
TPO7-
Behavior Modification
modify their behavior
term=term?
TPO13,14,15
this(tendency)
is known as
term
TPO14-~~ is referred to as
term
TPO15-
term
occurs
TPO4 verbal and nonverbal communication
TPO6 explicit memories and implicit memories
TPO12,17
,19,24
- called
term
TPO1
,3,8,13, 16,
18,20,22,23- ~~is known as
term
TPO21- is by
term
TPO 15 is
term
TPO4-but when
TPO12,18-But
TPO5,15,18,22-however
For the most Desperate Ones:
The subject of the talk is ~~~~. The professor provides a good example to illustrate what is ~~ and how it work .

At first, the professor talks about ~~~~
The professor then mentions that ~~~~.

This example related to
term
, which means ~~~~~.
The topic of the lecture is~~~.
/The lecturer gives a talk on~~~.

The professor first tells the class that~~~.
/The lecture says~~~~.

She next describes~~~~~.
/The second story related is~~~.

Both of the professor’s examples prove that~~~~.
/Both instances are examples of~~~.
Now happy lecturing!

Revealing Coloration

Many animals use coloration to protect themselves from predators. One defensive strategy involving the use of coloration is what
is known as

revealing coloration
. Animals employing this strategy have an area of bright color on some part of their body; this bright color is usually hidden from predators' view. When approached by a predator, the animal suddenly reveals the area of bright color; this unexpected display of color startle[give a sudden shock or surprise to]s or confuses the predator and provides the would-be prey with an opportunity to escape.
revealing coloration
=@#%……
life science: 4
/24
the study of living organisms, such as biology, medicine, or ecology.
physical science: 0
/24
the study of the nature and nonliving matter, such as physics, chemistry, or geology.
social science: 10/20
/24
the study of human society.
humanity:
the study of human thought and culture, such as philosophy, literature, and art.
Revealing Coloration--bio.
Ritualization--zoo.
Relict Behavior--bio.
Flagship--env.
secondary ecological succession
Franchising--busi.
Social Learning--psy.
Behavior Modification--psy.
Cognitive Dissonance--soc.
visual elements
movie
words framing
outsider artists
two principles that power your speeches
substitution acting
You Don’t Need to Be a
“Real”
Scholar !
Verbal and nonverbal communication

When we speak with other people face-to-face, the nonverbal signals we give-our facial expressions, hand gestures, body movements, and tone of voice-often communicate as much as, or more than, the words we utter[say or speak]. When our nonverbal signals, which we often produce unconsciously, agree with our verbal message, the verbal message is enhanced and supported, made more convincing. But when they conflict with the verbal message, we may be communicating an entirely different and more accurate message than what we intend.
Question
Behavior Modification

Individuals often modify their behavior based on what they have learned about the possible consequences of their actions.When an individual learns through experience that a certain behavior results in pleasant consequences, that behavior is likely to be repeated. An unpleasant consequence, on the other hand, discourages further repetition[repeat] of the behavior. While behavior modification can be observed in experiments, it also occurs frequently in everyday settings, when individuals change their behavior based on what they have learned about the consequences of that behavior.

Behavior Modification

Individuals often
modify
their
behavior
based on what they have learned about the possible consequences of their actions.When an individual learns through experience that a certain behavior results in pleasant consequences, that behavior is likely to be repeated. An unpleasant consequence, on the other hand, discourages further repetition[repeat] of the behavior. While behavior modification can be observed in experiments, it also occurs frequently in everyday settings, when individuals change their behavior based on what they have learned about the consequences of that behavior.
Social Interaction

People deal with each other every day. This interaction is at the heart of social life. The study of social interaction is concerned with the influence people have over one another's behavior People take each other into account in their daily behavior and in fact, the very presence of others can affect behavior. For example, one principle of social interaction, audience effects, suggests that individuals' work is affected by their knowledge that they are visible to others, that the presence of others tends to alter the way people behave or perform an activity.

Social Interaction

People deal with each other every day. This interaction is at the heart of social life. The study of
social interaction
is
concerned with the influence people have over one another's behavior People take each other into account in their daily behavior and in fact, the very presence of others can affect behavior. For example, one principle of social interaction,
audience effects
,
suggests
that individuals' work is affected by their knowledge that they are visible to others, that the presence of others tends to alter the way people behave or perform an activity.
Cognitive Dissonance

Individuals sometimes experience a contradiction between their actions and their beliefs—between what they are doing and what they believe they should be doing. These contradictions can cause a kind of mental discomfort known as cognitive dissonance. People experiencing cognitive dissonance often do not want to change the way they are acting, so they resolve the contradictory situation in another way: they change their interpretation of the situation in a way that minimizes the contradiction between what they are doing and what they believe they should be doing.

Cognitive Dissonance

Individuals sometimes experience a contradiction between their actions and their beliefs—between what they are doing and what they believe they should be doing.
These contradictions
can cause a kind of mental discomfort
known as
cognitive dissonance.
People experiencing cognitive dissonance often do not want to change the way they are acting, so they resolve the contradictory situation in another way: they change their interpretation of the situation in a way that minimizes the contradiction between what they are doing and what they believe they should be doing.

Verbal
and
non
verbal communication

When we speak with other people face-to-face, the nonverbal signals we give-our facial expressions, hand gestures, body movements, and tone of voice-often communicate as much as, or more than, the words we utter[say or speak]. When our nonverbal signals, which we often produce unconsciously,
agree with
our verbal message,
the verbal message is enhanced and supported
, made more convincing. But when
they conflict with the verbal message
, we may be communicating an
entirely different and more accurate
message than what we intend.
Full transcript