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Conserving Land and Soil

By: Rohan Deshpande and Carson Minter
by

Rohan D.

on 24 February 2013

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Transcript of Conserving Land and Soil

Conserving Land and Soil Structure of Fertile Soil Soil Use Problems Nutrient Depletion Land Reclamation Bedrock Topsoil Subsoil Litter Agriculture Development Mining Land Use The removal of nonrenewable resources is called mining.
In order to obtain minerals right beneath Earth's surface we use a process called strip mining.
Strip mining removes a strip of the earth, and then is put back after the resources are collected.
Strip mining exposes soil.When exposed, soil particles get blown away, and the area can stay arid for years. The top layer of the soil structure is called litter.
Litter consists of grass and dead plant material. It is all organic material.
The organic material in the litter is decomposed by decomposers like worms.
The decomposers break down the material into a kind of fertilizer for soil. The subsoil is the 2nd deepest layer in soil next to bedrock.
Subsoil contains the same material in topsoil-water, air and rock fragments-but it lacks in organic material and nutrients.
Lots of deep plant roots and tree roots come to the subsoil for water.
Towards the top of the subsoil is a small amount of humus (decayed organic matter) for the roots to absorb nutrients. All soil's origin is bedrock. The Earth's crust is made of bedrock.
Bedrock is the deepest layer in soil structure.
Thawing and cooling are processes that can break bedrock apart. Plant roots can also do this to it.
Dead organisms and rocks make up the bedrock. In order to grow, plants need nutrients from the soil, like potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen.
Some crops take lots of nutrients to grow. If the farmer plants the same crop every year that takes up lots of nutrients, the soil will become depleted of nutrients.
Farmers apply fertilizer to help the soil regain nutrients.
Farmers may also rotate every year on crops, and stick parts of previous crops into the soil for it to regain nutrients (conservation plowing).
They may also just leave the fields empty for the year. By Rohan Thank You for Watching! and Carson M. Bibliography Google Images. 16 February 2013. <https://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi>. Increased desertification of Turkey's arable land -22 Aug 08.
16 February 2013. <m.youtube.com/watch?v=M3-kUn6BXnk>. D. Buckley, Z. Miller, M. Padilla, K. Thornton, M. Wysession. Interactive Science. Upper Saddle River, N.J. Pearson Education, Inc., 2012. People eat a lot of food that comes from soil.
Fertile soil is required for farming, but about less than a third of our land on Earth has it!
However, there are ways to create more farmland. Some include clearing forest and irrigating deserts.
Land helps raise livestock and helps grow crops. The city of Cleveland is a development that takes up the land on Earth for human uses. This is a pie chart of the land usage in North Carolina. This is topsoil. It consists of rock fragments, nutrients, water, air, and decayed animal and plant matter. These Indian women are harvesting rice in India. This is part of India's agriculture. People originally resided in areas that had good, fertile soil and is near to a fresh water source.
As more and more people settled in these areas, they grew into cities and towns.
People built things like bridges, roads, and buildings to develop the land. This is an example of strip mining, where miners remove a strip of land and collect the resources. This is called litter. It contains lots of organic material. Topsoil is the layer of soil below the litter.
The topsoil consists of many things such as rock particles, water, air, decayed organic material, and nutrients.
Plants' roots absorb the water and nutrients in the topsoil in order to grow. This is another photo of topsoil rich in nutrients. The subsoil layer contains the same things in topsoil, but it has less organic matter. This video talks about how a drought in Turkey can lead a land once very fertile, to becoming a desert. Layers of Soil. 20 February 2013. <http://www.kfb.org/Assets/uploads/kaileypdfs/LayersofSoil.pdf>. very, Rich topsoil takes a very, very long time to form. Fun Facts! In the U.S, an area about half as much the size of New Jersey is developed annually.
Did you know that organisms such as worms can also break up rock into even smaller pieces?
Soil is crucial to the survival of all organisms, so we should try to save it as much as we can. WOW! This is bedrock, the hardest and deepest layer of soil. This is a diagram for the layers of soil. Africa is facing desertification due to droughts and extreme climate. very, Erosion Desertification Plant roots naturally hold soil, but when they're taken out, soil becomes really loose.
Loose soil can be transported away easily by water, wind, or ice. This is erosion.
Plants and trees can be removed while people are farming, mining, or during deforestation.
A way to help stop erosion is terracing. Thankfully, there is a way to restore damaged land through a process called land reclamation.
Land reclamation restores land to a better state than it is now.
Land reclamation can restore animal habitats, too.
People are helping with the land reclamation process all over the world.
It's not exactly easy-peasy to restore destroyed land but hey,"You destroy it, you restore it!" Desertification is when a once-fertile land becomes a desert.
It occurs due to climate, droughts, overgrazing by cattle or sheep, or deforestation.
Desertification is a major problem-
famine and starvation could be terrible results of desertification.
Farmers cannot grow crops and raise livestock, because of it. Terracing is a method used to prevent erosion. It can take hundreds of years for just a couple of centimeters of fertile soil to form!
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