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Transcript of Biomolecules
compounds made by living things
Also called biochemicals or biological molecules or macromolecules
Vary in size
Based on the most important element in living organisms…
What are Biomolecules?
What are the 6 main elements found in biomolecules?
That means it can form 4 covalent
It bonds with itself over and over to form giant carbon chains called carbon
What makes carbon so special?
Four Biomolecule Categories
4) Nucleic Acids
Made of only 3 elements:
The word carbohydrate comes from the fact that these compounds have many carbon atoms bonded to
Serve 2 main functions:
Source of chemical
for cells in many living things.
Part of the
material of plants
Come in all sizes, from small rings to long chains.
Two Types of Carbohydrates
in the body
Provide a quick burst of energy or a “sugar rush”
is the most important & simplest sugar on Earth.
Used in cells & created by photosynthesis
It comes in many forms
of simple sugars joined together
These big molecules are called
, polysaccharides or
to break down in the body & provide energy for a longer period of time than regular sugars.
Marathon runners, tri-athletes, cyclists like Lance Armstrong, and other endurance runners eat carbohydrates for weeks leading up to a big event. They call it “carbo-loading”. Even high school athletes occasionally have “pasta feeds” the night before a big game. What’s the point? As the athletes consume massive amounts of starch and pasta, the energy begins to store up in their body, saving itself for use during the event.
Did you know that?
Unlike animal cells,
cells have a cell wall made of cellulose.
The cell wall is a large part of vegetables such as lettuce & celery.
It also is what gives stems & wood strength.
Made from chains of thousands of glucose molecules, but the difference is in how they’re linked.
Because of this small difference, your body
digest cellulose the same way it can starches & sugars.
What is the difference between sugar, starch, and cellulose?
Not sure? Maybe you need to go back and read the previous slides...
Mostly made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
More complex & take longer to break down
So, fats are
molecules that plants and animals use to store energy in reserves for longer periods.
Fatty acid chains
Fats & oils store energy super-efficiently, 1 gram of fat contains about
the energy as 1 gram of carbohydrate.
A fat molecule has a 2-part structure.
The first part is called
Attached to the glycerol are 3 long chains called
Plants store energy in
, like olive oil, corn oil, or peanut oil.
An oil is a fat that is
at room temperature.
How are lipids different from carbohydrates?
bonds in the carbon chain
Diets high in saturated fat are linked to heart disease
one or more
bonds in the carbon chain
Most oils from
Saturated and Unsaturated
Examples of Fats
List 3 differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.
Another lipid in cell membranes
Needed to make
Your body makes the cholesterol that it needs, but it is also found in many foods that come from animals, like meat and eggs.
Although you need cholesterol, eating too much of it can block arteries and lead to heart disease.
Fueling the Body: Carbohydrates & Fats
Click to watch then answer the questions.
Proteins are big molecules called
Made of smaller molecules called
Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, & some other elements
There are at least
proteins in your body
Each has a different
that gives it a specific
types of structure, including coils & curls.
Think of proteins as being like a word. Amino acids are the letters in that word. Rearranging the letters makes words with different meanings.
amino acids required for human life to exist.
amino acids are made in our bodies, but the other
must be obtained by eating
that contain them.
Some proteins curl up into a shape like a ball of enzymes.
An enzyme is a special protein & a
for a chemical reaction in living things.
Catalysts speed up the rate of a reaction.
Enzymes are needed for many chemical reactions in your body.
Without them, these reactions would occur too slowly to keep you alive.
It’s important to have lots of protein in your diet!
Proteins in foods such as
are broken down into amino acids.
Without protein, your body can’t function perfectly..
This is why it’s important for vegetarians to find protein from non-animal sources.
Proteins in the Diet
Most of the chemical needed for life can by made by your own body, like proteins.
However, there are certain chemicals that your body does not automatically make.
We call these vitamins &
Important daily vitamins & minerals include calcium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and a whole bunch of B vitamins.
The only place to get these: food!!
, or vitamin C, is needed for several important processes in your brain & nervous system.
results from a lack of vitamin C in your diet.
It causes of spotting on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding membranes, and can eventually lead to death.
The British Royal Navy were among the first to discover this vitamin deficiency, when they noticed their sailors would get sick without fresh fruits & vegetables.
Largest & most complex biomolecule
Contain information that cells use to make proteins
4) Nucleic Acids
Every cell in your body has a complete set of nucleic acids.
The process of making proteins from amino acids is called
How does protein synthesis work?
DNA makes RNA, RNA makes Protein
One of the largest molecules
A single DNA molecule has more than
Twisted ladder or
The sides of the ladder are made of:
molecules called deoxyribose
The “rungs” of the ladder are made of
Occur in matched sets:
Adenine (A) to Thymine (T)
Cytosine(C) to Guanine (G)
The order of the bases in DNA is the way in which DNA stores instructions for making proteins.
Each of the 20 amino acids is represented by a series of
For example, the sequence T-A-C is the code for the amino acid tyrosine.
4 Nitrogen Bases
How is protein different from carbohydrates & lipids?
Describe the structure of a DNA molecule.