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Biomolecules

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids
by

Erin Schumacher

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Biomolecules

Biomolecules
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Protein
Nucleic Acids
Organic
compounds made by living things
Also called biochemicals or biological molecules or macromolecules
Vary in size
Based on the most important element in living organisms…
carbon
!!!

What are Biomolecules?

Carbon
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorous
Sulfur
(Think CHNOPS)
What are the 6 main elements found in biomolecules?

Carbon has
4

valence electrons
That means it can form 4 covalent
bonds
It bonds with itself over and over to form giant carbon chains called carbon
backbones

What makes carbon so special?
Four Biomolecule Categories

3) Protein

2) Lipids

1) Carbohydrates

4) Nucleic Acids

The
simplest
biomolecules
Made of only 3 elements:
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
The word carbohydrate comes from the fact that these compounds have many carbon atoms bonded to
hydroxide
(OH) groups.

1) Carbohydrates
Serve 2 main functions:
Source of chemical
energy
for cells in many living things.
Part of the
structural
material of plants
Come in all sizes, from small rings to long chains.

Carbohydrates
(2)
Complex
Carbohydrates
1)
Simple

Carbohydrates
Two Types of Carbohydrates
Break down
quickly
in the body
Provide a quick burst of energy or a “sugar rush”
Glucose
is the most important & simplest sugar on Earth.
Used in cells & created by photosynthesis
It comes in many forms

Sugar
Long
chains
of simple sugars joined together
These big molecules are called
macromolecules
, polysaccharides or
polymers

Slower
to break down in the body & provide energy for a longer period of time than regular sugars.
Starch
Marathon runners, tri-athletes, cyclists like Lance Armstrong, and other endurance runners eat carbohydrates for weeks leading up to a big event. They call it “carbo-loading”. Even high school athletes occasionally have “pasta feeds” the night before a big game. What’s the point? As the athletes consume massive amounts of starch and pasta, the energy begins to store up in their body, saving itself for use during the event.

Did you know that?

Unlike animal cells,
plant
cells have a cell wall made of cellulose.
The cell wall is a large part of vegetables such as lettuce & celery.
It also is what gives stems & wood strength.
Made from chains of thousands of glucose molecules, but the difference is in how they’re linked.
Because of this small difference, your body
cannot
digest cellulose the same way it can starches & sugars.
Cellulose
Quiz Yourself

What is the difference between sugar, starch, and cellulose?

Not sure? Maybe you need to go back and read the previous slides...

Fats
&
Oils

Mostly made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
More complex & take longer to break down
So, fats are
high-energy
molecules that plants and animals use to store energy in reserves for longer periods.

Lipids

Lipids
Glycerol
backbone
Fatty acid chains
Fats & oils store energy super-efficiently, 1 gram of fat contains about
twice
the energy as 1 gram of carbohydrate.
A fat molecule has a 2-part structure.
The first part is called
glycerol
.
Attached to the glycerol are 3 long chains called
fatty acids
.

Lipid Structure
Plants store energy in
oil
, like olive oil, corn oil, or peanut oil.
An oil is a fat that is
liquid
at room temperature.
Quiz Yourself

How are lipids different from carbohydrates?

Saturated fats
only
single
bonds in the carbon chain
Most
animal
fats
“Bad” fats
Diets high in saturated fat are linked to heart disease

Unsaturated fats
one or more
double
bonds in the carbon chain
Most oils from
plants

“Good” fats

Saturated and Unsaturated
Examples of Fats

List 3 differences between saturated and unsaturated fats.

Quiz Yourself
Another lipid in cell membranes
Needed to make
hormones
like adrenaline
Your body makes the cholesterol that it needs, but it is also found in many foods that come from animals, like meat and eggs.
Although you need cholesterol, eating too much of it can block arteries and lead to heart disease.
Cholesterol
Fueling the Body: Carbohydrates & Fats
Click to watch then answer the questions.
Proteins are big molecules called
macromolecules

Made of smaller molecules called
amino acids
Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, & some other elements
There are at least
100,000
proteins in your body
Each has a different
structure
that gives it a specific
job
.
There are
4
types of structure, including coils & curls.
Proteins
Think of proteins as being like a word. Amino acids are the letters in that word. Rearranging the letters makes words with different meanings.
There are
20
amino acids required for human life to exist.
12
amino acids are made in our bodies, but the other
8
must be obtained by eating
foods
that contain them.

Amino Acids
Some proteins curl up into a shape like a ball of enzymes.
An enzyme is a special protein & a
catalyst
for a chemical reaction in living things.
Catalysts speed up the rate of a reaction.
Enzymes are needed for many chemical reactions in your body.
Without them, these reactions would occur too slowly to keep you alive.

Enzymes
It’s important to have lots of protein in your diet!
Proteins in foods such as
meats
,
soybeans
, &
nuts
are broken down into amino acids.
Without protein, your body can’t function perfectly..
This is why it’s important for vegetarians to find protein from non-animal sources.
Proteins in the Diet
Most of the chemical needed for life can by made by your own body, like proteins.
However, there are certain chemicals that your body does not automatically make.
We call these vitamins &
minerals
.
Important daily vitamins & minerals include calcium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and a whole bunch of B vitamins.
The only place to get these: food!!

Vitamins
Ascorbic acid
, or vitamin C, is needed for several important processes in your brain & nervous system.
Scurvy
results from a lack of vitamin C in your diet.
It causes of spotting on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding membranes, and can eventually lead to death.
The British Royal Navy were among the first to discover this vitamin deficiency, when they noticed their sailors would get sick without fresh fruits & vegetables.
Vitamin C
Largest & most complex biomolecule
Includes:
DNA
RNA

Contain information that cells use to make proteins
Made of:
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
4) Nucleic Acids
Every cell in your body has a complete set of nucleic acids.
The process of making proteins from amino acids is called
protein synthesis
.
How does protein synthesis work?
DNA makes RNA, RNA makes Protein

Protein Synthesis
Deoxyribonucleic acid
One of the largest molecules
A single DNA molecule has more than
1 million
atoms.
DNA
Twisted ladder or
double helix
The sides of the ladder are made of:
Sugar
molecules called deoxyribose
Phosphate
groups
The “rungs” of the ladder are made of
nitrogen bases
DNA Structure
Occur in matched sets:
Adenine (A) to Thymine (T)
Cytosine(C) to Guanine (G)
The order of the bases in DNA is the way in which DNA stores instructions for making proteins.
Each of the 20 amino acids is represented by a series of
3
DNA bases.
For example, the sequence T-A-C is the code for the amino acid tyrosine.
4 Nitrogen Bases
How is protein different from carbohydrates & lipids?
Quiz Yourself
Describe the structure of a DNA molecule.
Quiz Yourself
Full transcript