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What is poetry?

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Angie Post

on 20 March 2015

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Transcript of What is poetry?

What is poetry?
Poetry vs Prose
What is the difference between poetry and prose?

Prose is typically used in every day writing.

"Poetry tends to be more expressive or decorated, with comparisons, rhyme, and rhythm contributing to a different sound or feel" (Kids Britannica Encyclopedia).

For more differences, go here: http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/p-as_docs/PoetryandProse.pdf
How To Read a Poem
Poetic Devices
1.
Alliteration
: The repetition of
consonant sounds
in words that are close together.

2.
Allusion
: A reference to a statement, a person, a place, or an event from literature, the arts, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, or science.

3.
Assonance
: The repetition of
vowel sounds
in words that are close together.

4.
Couplet
: Two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme.

5.
Extended Metaphor
: A metaphor is stated, and the comparison is extended as far as the poet can take it
Poetic Devices
6.
Hyperbole/Exaggeration
: Statements that stretch the truth about as high and wide as it will go, and generally used for humor.

7.
Imagery
: Language that appeals to the senses.

8.
Metaphor
: An imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing.

9.
Mood
: The overall mood or feeling of a work.

10.
Onomatopoeia
: The use of words whose sounds imitate or suggest their meaning.
Poetic Devices
11.
Personification
: A figure of speech in which an object or animal is spoken as if it had human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes.

12.
Quatrain
: A stanza or poem of four lines, usually with alternate rhymes.

13.
Refrain
: A repeated sound, word, phrase, line, or group of lines.

14.
Rhyme
: The repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words that are close together in a poem.

15.
Rhyme Scheme
: The pattern of end rhymes in a poem. To indicate the rhyme scheme of a poem, use a separate letter of the alphabet for each end rhyme.
What is Poetry?
A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination.

Poetry is usually arranged in lines. It often has a regular pattern of rhythm and may have a regular rhyme scheme.
1. Pay attention to punctuation.

2. Find the subject and verb.

3. Look for
figures of speech
(
figurative language & poetic devices
).

4. Listen to the poem.

5. Read it again.
Alliteration
In the stanza below, the s, m, and b sounds are repeated:

The
s
un was shining on the
s
ea,
Shining with all his
m
ight:
He did his very
b
est to
m
ake
The
b
illows smooth and
b
right--
And this was odd, because it was
The middle of the night.

--Lewis Caroll, from "The Walrus and the Carpenter"
Allusion
In the lyrics below, singer Taylor Swift refers to Shakespeare's famous play
Romeo and Juliet
:

Little did I know...
That you were Romeo, you were throwing pebbles,
And my daddy said, "Stay away from Juliet"
And I was crying on the staircase
Begging you, "Please don't go."

--Taylor Swift, "Love Story"
Assonance
Couplet
The following stanza, consists of two couplets. The first two lines rhyme; then the second two lines rhyme:


I felt for the toad and his pitiful state,
But the day was now fading, and such was his fate.
In the grand scheme of things, now I
confess
,
What's one little froggie more or
less
?

--Anne-Marie Wulfsberg
Extended Metaphor
Onomatopoeia
In the following lines the poet suggests the sound of sleigh bells in the cold night air by using onomatopoeia:

Hear the sledges with the bells--
Silver bells!
What a world of merriment their melody
foretells!
How they
tinkle
,
tinkle
,
tinkle
,
In the icy air of night!
While the stars that oversprinkle
All the Heavens, seem to
twinkle
With a crystalline delight.

--Edgar Allan Poe, from
"The Bells"
Poetic Devices
16.
Rhythm
: A musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables or by the repetition of certain other sound patterns.

17.
Simile
: A comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as
like
,
as
,
than
, or
resembles
.

18.
Stanza
: A group of consecutive lines in a poem that form a single unit.

19.
Symbol
: A person, a place, a thing, or an event that has meaning in itself and strands for something beyond itself as well.

20.
Tone
: The attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, characters, and audience.
Types of Poems
1.
Lyric Poem
: A poem that expresses the feelings or thoughts of a speaker rather than telling a story.

2.
Narrative Poem
: A poem that tells a story.

3.
Ballad
: A song or songlike poem that tells a story. They usually tell stories of tragedy, love, or adventure using simple language and a great deal of repetition.

4.
Epic
: A long narrative poem that is written in heightened language and tells stories of the deeds of a heroic character who embodies the values of a society.

5.
Ode
: A lyric poem, rhymed or unrhymed, on a serious subject.

6.
Sonnet
: A fourteen-line poem, usually written in iambic pentameter.

7.
Elegy
: A poem of mourning, usually about someone who has died.

8.
Free Verse
: A poetry without a regular meter or rhyme scheme.
In these lines from a poem, the same "e" vowel sound is repeated:

St
e
m
e
nd and blossom
e
nd,
And
e
very fl
e
ck of russ
e
t showing clear


-- "After Apple Picking" by Robert Frost
In the example below, the speaker compares hope to a bird for the entire poem:

“Hope" is the thing with feathers -
That perches in the soul-
And sings the tune–without the words -
And never stops - at all -

And sweetest - in the Gale - is heard -
And sore must be the storm -
That could abash the little Bird
That kept so many warm -

I’ve heard it in the chilliest land -
And on the strangest Sea -
Yet - never - in Extremity,
It asked a crumb - of me.

--Emily Dickinson, "Hope" is the thing with feathers
Hyperbole/Exaggeration
In the poem below, the speaker's idea of love is over-the-top:

I’ll love you, dear, I’ll love you
Till China and Africa meet,
And the river jumps over the mountain
And the salmon sing in the street,
I’ll love you till the ocean
Is folded and hung up to dry

-- W.H. Auden, "As I Walked One Evening"
Imagery
The poet John Greenleaf Whittier helps us experience the start of a New England blizzard with this image:

The sun that bleak December day
Rose cheerless over the hills of gray.
Metaphor
In the following metaphor, the speaker compares fame to a bee:

Fame is a bee.
It has song--
It has a sting--
Ah, too, it has a wing.

--Emily Dickinson
Mood
In the lyrics below, the song can be described with one of the following adjectives: happy, joyful, optimistic.

Because I'm happy
Clap along if you feel like a room without a roof
Because I'm happy
Clap along if you feel like happiness is the truth
Because I'm happy
Clap along if you know what happiness is to you
Because I'm happy
Clap along if you feel like that's what you wanna do.

-- Pharrell Williams, "Happy"
Personification
In the lyrics below, a wall (an inanimate object) is given human characteristics:

Remember those walls I built
Well, baby they're tumbling down
And they didn't even put up a fight
They didn't even make up a sound


-- Beyoncé, "Halo"
Quatrain
The following stanza has four lines and has an A, B, C, A rhyme scheme:

Why are you
here
?
Who have you come for
and what would you gain?
Where is your
fear
?


-- Peter Cole, "Quatrains for a Calling"
Refrain
In the song below, some lines are repeated throughout the chorus:

Some legends are told
Some turn to dust or to gold
But you will remember me
Remember me for centuries
And just one mistake
Is all it will take.
We'll go down in history
Remember me for centuries
Hey, hey, hey
Remember me for centuries

-- Fall Out Boy, "Centuries"
Rhyme
Notice that some of the words at the ends of the lines rhyme:

I would not like them
here or
there
.
I would not like them
anywhere
.
I do not like
green eggs and
ham
.
I do not like them,
Sam-I-
am
...

-- Dr. Seuss, "Green Eggs and Ham"
Rhyme Scheme
In the example below, there is an A
A
BB
A
rhyme scheme:

I sat next to the Duchess at
tea
; (A)
It was just as I feared it would
be
; (A)
Her rumblings
abdominal
(B)
Were truly
phenomenal
, (B)
And everyone thought it was
me
!

(A)


Rhythm
The excerpt below is an example of how meter can create rhythm with a combination of stressed and unstressed syllables (the bold syllables are stressed & the non bolded syllables are unstressed):

Dou
ble,
dou
ble
toil
and
trou
ble;
Fi
re
burn
and
cald
ron
bub
ble.
Cool
it
with
a
ba
boon's
blood
,
Then
the
charm
is
firm
and
good
.

-- Shakespeare,
Macbeth
Simile
What happens to a dream deferred?


Does it dry up
like a raisin in the sun
?
Or
fester like a sore

And then run?

Does it stink like rotten meat
?
Or
crust and sugar over—
like a syrupy sweet
?


Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load
.

Or does it explode?


-- Langston Hughes, "Harlem"
Stanza
The following group of lines are called a
stanza
:

Slowly, silently, now the moon
Walks the night in her silver shoon;
This way, and that, she peers and sees
Silver fruit upon silver trees.

-- Walter de la Mare, "Silver"
Symbol
In the stanza below, a rose is a symbol for love:

O my Luve is like a red, red rose
That’s newly sprung in June;
O my Luve is like the melody
That’s sweetly played in tune.


-- Robert Burns, "A Red, Red Rose"
Tone
In the following excerpt, the tone is passionate and sincere:

"I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American Dream."

-- Martin Luther King, Jr. from "I Have a Dream"
Full transcript