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Tuberculosis

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kimberly alvarez

on 1 August 2013

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Transcript of Tuberculosis

Kimberly Alvarez
Mina Dhakal

TUBERCULOSIS
DEFINITION
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria whose scientific name is
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
and also called
tubercle bacillus.
Causes
People who have active TB infection can spread the TB bacteria. Coughing, sneezing even talking can release the bacteria into the surrounding air and people breathing air can become infected.
Signs and Symptoms
Transmission
TB is primarily an airborne disease. The bacteria are spread from person to person in tiny microscopic droplets when a TB sufferer coughs, sneezes, speaks, sings, or laughs. Only people with active TB can spread the disease to others.
Treatment/Prognosis
Tuberculosis typically attacks the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, kidneys, urinary tract, and bones.
Your chances of becoming infected are higher if you come from - or travel to - certain countries where TB is common.

People who are at greater risk for TB infection include:
-the elderly
-homeless people
-people with substance use problems
-individuals who have spent time in a correctional facility,and
-people with weakened immune systems from HIV or AIDS
Of course, the odds increase if you have close or frequent contact with someone who has active TB symptoms. This is especially true for health care workers who may be exposed to patients with active TB.
Characteristics of Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a small, slow growing bacterium that can live only in people.
It is an aerobic bacterium, meaning it needs oxygen to survive.
It is not found in other animals, insects, soil, or other nonliving things.
Chain of Infection
Infectious Agent
tiny microscopic droplets containing the tuberculosis bacteria are sent into the air, causing people nearby to breathe in these bacteria and possibly become infected
Reservoir
Portal of Exit
Mode of Transmission
Portal of entry
Susceptible Host
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Respiratory System or Lungs
Mouth and Nose
Through Air
TB's portal of exit is also its portal of entry - the human respiratory system. Just as the bacterium can be expelled by coughing or sneezing, it can be inhaled by nose and mouth.
Everyone is at risk for having TB
Diagnostic Tests
Physical test
The most commonly used diagnostic tool for TB is a simple
skin test
. For a skin test, a very small amount of non-infectious TB protein is injected under the surface of your skin. If you are infected with TB, a
hard swelling
usually develops at the injection site within 48 to 72 hours.
Blood Test
Blood test may be used to confirm or rule out latent or active tuberculosis. These tests use sophisticated technology to measure immune system’s reaction to TB bacteria.
Chest X-ray
If patient has
positive skin test, doctor can order a chest X-ray
. This may show
white spots
in lungs where immune system has walled off TB bacteria.
Sputum Test
If chest X-ray shows signs of tuberculosis, doctor may take a samples of your sputum – the mucus that comes up when patient cough.
For this test, you will collect sputum from a deep cough first thing in the morning and bring it to the hospital or doctor's office. A lab technician will smear a sample of your phlegm onto a glass slide and add a special stain that will make any
TB-causing bacteria show up under a microscope.
If tests show that you have TB infection it is important to protect your immune system from becoming weak. TB drug (antibiotics) may be prescribed and will help your immune system fight the TB germs and prevent TB disease.
You may be taking a combination of antibiotics that may include isoniazid (INH), rifampin, pyrazinamide, or ethambutol, for 6 to 12 months. Because active TB disease can be fatal if left untreated, regular monitoring and treatment by a doctor are crucial.
Isoniazid
Rifampin
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol
People who do not finish a full course of antibiotic treatment may present a risk of spreading TB to others.
Precautions
Residential Precaution
1. Patients never have close contact with children, HIV, and cancer patients because they have weak immune system.

2. Always cover the mouth and nose when they are whopping or sneezing.

3. They have to be less involve in common place of facility like washroom and living room.

4. Avoiding the get together program in facility.

5. Managing well ventilation system in facility.

6. Strictly use of prescribed medicine.
Community Precaution
-This role requires the community focus and provide oversight on the following critical elements:

1. Support the planning and policy of health authority

2. Training and education.

3. Monitoring and evaluation effort.
Acute Setting
1. Patient should be provided a separate room.

2. Always focus disinfected and sanitized environment.

3. Educating precautions procedure to visitors and family members.

4. Providing clear instructions of precautions, preventions and medication procedure in discharge slip.
Impact on individual, family and facility
Physical impact
Infected person may have suffer from some physical problems such as weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, fever, hard whooping, night sweat and fever.
Family impact
Family members may have suffer from isolation with patient, time, cost for medication.
Social impact
Patient has to tolerate the panic of being separate from community
Economic impact
Infected person has to pay lots of money, time and effort for curing himself. Sometime he has to stop work or job. Family also has to give time and money for patients treatment. Government also has to allocate meaningful budget to control the disease.
Protect Yourself
Be Safe
Thank you!
Full transcript