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Ischemic Heart Disease: Deadliest Disease of Today

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Raquel Schoeneberg

on 6 April 2015

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Transcript of Ischemic Heart Disease: Deadliest Disease of Today

What Is Ischemic Heart Disease?
Ischemic Heart Disease or Coronary Heart Disease is the narrowing of the blood vessels that supply the heart with blood and oxygen.

These Arteries Include:
1. Left Anterior Descending Artery
2. Left Circumflex Artery
3. Right Coronary Artery
Pathology
Oxygen and Red Blood Cells bring oxygenated blood and nutrients to the Hearts muscles or "myocardium".

In these arteries, there is fats and lipids which are known as "Low Density Lipoproteins" or "LDL Cholestrol".

The Build Up
Once Atherosclerosis builds up in the arterial walls of the heart, it causes a narrowing effect, which limits the amount of Blood and Nutrients to the heart.

Coronary Thrombosis- If the plaque builds up to a threshold point, the plaque can burst which signals the RBC's to start clotting.

This clotting can result in a heart attack - "a sudden and sometimes fatal occurrence of coronary thrombosis, typically resulting in the death of part of a heart muscle."
Or in more unfortunate causes stroke- "sudden diminution or loss of consciousness, sensation, and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of a blood vessel of the brain"

Which in turn causes loss of motor function, loss of neurological function or even death.
What Happens Next?
Atherosclerosis (disease which causes a build up of plaque (build up of LDL in the arteries of the body)

In CAD atherosclerosis plaque builds up in the endothelium of arterial walls of the heart and causes a narrowing of the arteries.
Ischemic Heart Disease:
Deadliest Disease Of Our Time

Why is Ischemic Heart Disease the Deadliest Disease of Our Time?
Live From the CDC
"Center of Disease Control and Prevention"
In the United States:

Approximately 600,000 people died of heart disease every year

CAD accounts for 1 in 4 Deaths

715,000 Americans who have heart attacks each year, 15 % of those people will die
Risk Factors:
The Risk of developing Ischemic Heart Disease increases when you:

1. Have constant Blood Pressue
2. Suffer from High Cholestrol
3. Are a frequent smoker
World Wide Facts
Over 80% of the world's deaths from Heart Disease Occur in low-middle income countries which include:
1. Russia
2. Bulgaria
3. Romania
4. Hungary
5. Argentina
In the United States the highest Percent of CAD Deaths Per State Include:

Medical and Economic Costs of Ischemic Heart Disease in The United States
The number of people who go to the hospital for heart disease every year is about 3.7 million

On average these people stay in hospital for 4-6 Days

12.4 Million people make heart disease visits to their physicians every year

The total estimated costs of Heart Disease is roughly:
- $192 Billion in direct health expenditures
- $121 Billion in indirect costs (mortality)

** All of these costs do not include the $135 Million the American Heart Association spends on cardiovascular disease and stroke research each year**
Treatments for
Ischemic Heart Disease
Once there is a prevalence of medical emergency for those suffering from a coronary thrombosis there are minimal medical procedures to fix the plaque burst or blood clotting in the arterial walls.

These Include:

Thrombectomy is a catheter-based procedure that involves the aspiration of these blood clots.

Angioplasty - Where an empty, collapsed balloon, known as a balloon catheter, is passed over a wire into the narrowed locations and then inflated to a fixed size. The balloon forces expansion of the stenosis (narrowing) within the vessel and the surrounding muscular wall, opening up the blood vessel for improved flow, and the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn. A stent may or may not be inserted at the time of ballooning to ensure the vessel remains open.

Coronary Heart Bypass Surgery ( Bypass Graft) - the blood vessel is removed or redirected from one area of the body and placed around the area or areas of narrowing in order to "bypass" the blockages and restore blood flow to the heart muscle. This vessel is called a graft.

These substitute blood vessels can come from your chest, legs, or arms. They're safe to use because there are other pathways that take blood to and from those tissues. The surgeon will decide which graft(s) to use depending on the location of your blockage, the amount of blockage and the size of your coronary arteries.
The Thromboectomy shows the before ad after procedure of removing the blood clot from the arteries.
Demographic Statistics
Gender Influences
Women are more likely to have died from heart disease than men in over the past 30 years

Women are more likely than men to die after their first heart attack

Women often ignore or misinterpret heart attack signs:
1. Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
2. Upper body pain or discomfort in arms, back, neck lower jaw or upper stomach
3. Shortness of breath
4. Nausea, Lightheadedness, or Cold Sweats
In 2012, The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that roughly 7.4 million people died of Ischemic Heart Disease in 2012, which is approximately 13.2 % of all deaths.
1. Mississippi
2. Alabama
3. Oklahoma
4. West Virigina
5. Louisana
6. Arkansas
7. Tennesse
8. Washington
9. Kentucky
10. Michigan
11. Missouri
12. Ohio
White and African Americans are mostly affected by Ischemic Heart Disease - Approx. 24.3- 24.1 % of deaths
Asian and Pacific Islanders - Approx. 22.5 % of Deaths
Hispanic Community - Approx. 20.8 % of deaths
American Indians and Alaska Natives - Approx. 17.9 % of deaths
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