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The Age of Exploration - What made the voyages possible?
Transcript of The Age of Exploration - What made the voyages possible?
These ships brought together the best qualities of ships that sailed in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea
Compasses were used to tell sailors which direction they were sailing in. They were often unreliable as the iron on the ships interfered with the magnet..
Latitude and Longitude page 127
built. The boards on the side of the ship were fitted edge to edge. Caravel ships could be built longer than
clinker built ships
and carry more masts.
They used both square and
(triangular sails). Square sails were used to sail faster with the wind following behind. Lateen sails were used to sail against the wind.
The caravels were steered by
This gave more control over steering.
(raised structures) on the decks at the front and back. From the castles, sailors could sight enemy ships more easily and take defensive action.
Label the diagram below
Astrolabes and quadrants were instruments used to work out a ship's latitude (distance from the equator). These instruments were sophisticated and technologically advanced.
The astrolabe measured latitude by studying the position of the sun during daylight hours and the quadrant achieved the same result by studying the position of the stars in the night sky.
Knowing his latitude helped a sailor work out exactly how far his ship had travelled.
These were early navigational maps of the sea. They recorded information such as the shape of the coastline. They were very important to the age of exploration.
Log Line and Knots
This was how sailors worked out their speed and distance travelled.
When ships were sailing in the shallow water, the sailors needed to check the depth of the water. This was done using a line with a lead weight at the end. The line was dropped into the water and the depth called out.
The logbook was used to record details of the voyage - the direction, distances, winds and currents. The information was used for later voyages
Life on Board Ship
Life on board ship was difficult.
Officers came from better off classes, while the sailors came from poorer classes.
At the start more sailors were taken on board than were needed because the captain knew that many would die.
Food was mainly dry and salted.
Sailors ate ship biscuit. Cooking was done in a firebox on deck if the weather was suitable.
There were prayers in the morning and in the evening.
The sailors spent the day mending sails, repairing the ship or helping with navigation.
In the early voyages they slept on deck or with the cargo in the hold.
Discipline was strict and punishment was severe. Sailors could be flogged or put in chains.
One of the greatest dangers was scurvy. It often resulted in death.
Complete the handout and stick it into hardback notes copy.