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Trigonometry in Medical Imaging

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by

Nicole Cruder

on 20 May 2015

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Transcript of Trigonometry in Medical Imaging

Trigonometry in Medical Imaging
MRI
How does it work?
Magnetic field aligns protons inside of hydrogen atoms
Bursts of radio waves are sent from the scanner into body
Knock protons from their position
STOP -> protons realign back into place (emit signals)
Signals are detected by a receiving device in the scanner
Receiving device transmits the signals to a computer
Creates a picture based on radio signals
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Use of Trigonometry
MRI scanning process
Protons oscillate in magnetic field
Release energy -> return to equilibrium state
MRI signal
Produces graph (damped sinusoidal wave)
Oscillates in same manner as sine waves except...
Amplitude approaches zero as time increases
Signal creates MRI image
Use of Trigonometry
Open fracture
Ex: leg
Use trig to determine the exact plate size needed to fix and support it
Trigonometric function cosine
Needs to heals properly; regain full movement of leg
CAT Scan
Computerized Axial Tomography
Triangulation
Brain tumor removal -> requires careful preparation
Process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point directly
Used to pinpoint exact location of tumor
What is Medical Imaging?
Ruptured
abdominal aortic aneurysm
Ruptured
abdominal aortic aneurysm
What's Wrong???
A 32-year-old man comes into the ER complaining of severe abdominal and lower back pain. A nurse takes his blood pressure - it is unusually low for his age. Alarmingly, the man looses consciousness for a few seconds every 15 minutes.
Technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of bones, organs and tissues within the body
Doppler Ultrasound
Test uses reflected sound waves to see how blood flows through a blood vessel
Use of Trigonometry
Flow of blood directed toward the probe
Reflected wave = high frequency (positive shift)
Flow of blood moving away in relation to the probe
Low frequency is reflected (negative shift)
Determines direction the probe needs to be shifted
Tech must be able to accurately measure blood flow and have a clear view of it on monitor
Calculated using cosine of the angle between the axis of the ultrasound beam and direction of flow
Max Doppler shift occurs at 0 degrees (cosine of o = 1)
Flow is directly towards or away from probe
Perpendicular flow to ultrasound beam = 90 degrees (cosine of 90 = 0), no shift is detected
Technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body
Variety of imaging technologies
Ex: MRI, CAT scan and ultrasound
Depends on symptoms and part of body being examined
Seeks to...
Reveal internal structures hidden by the skin and bones
Monitor medical conditions
Diagnose and treat diseases
Non-invasive; painless
Technique that combines a series of X-ray images taken from different angles and uses computer processing to create cross-sectional images, or slices, of organs, blood vessels and bones inside the body
Nicole Cruder
Full transcript