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Peace Theme 4: Challenging the War system
Transcript of Peace Theme 4: Challenging the War system
Challenging the War System
is classical or international if it is between states, or civil or internal, if it occurs between rival groups or communities within a state. groups of non-state armed actors are considered "political communities," since they have a political purpose.
is defined by the United Nations as the used of the armed force by a state against the Sovereignty, territorial integrity, or political independence of another state, or in any other manner (www.un-documents.net). A major armed conflict, on the other hand, is defined by Project Ploughshares (2006) as a political conflict in which armed fighting involves the armed forces of at least one state (or one or more armed factions seeking to gain control of all or part of the state), and in which 1,000 people have been killed by the warfare during the course of the conflict.
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF WAR
Territorial Disputes have been regarded as the more common causes of war. Huth (1998) defines territorial disputes as the disagreement between states or groups within a state over where their homeland or borders should be fixed. it also pertains to the challenge a country poses over the right of another to exercise sovereignty over some or its entire homeland. Territorial disputes are often tied with the quest for independence or sovereignty.
A lack of tolerance for differences is an emerging source of conflicts. differences may be in nationality, clan membership, ethnicity or religious affiliation. Oftentimes, though differences only aggravate an ongoing conflict which is normally caused by other factors such as land disputes and political and economic repression.
Ideological or power struggles are sources of war in various countries. an IDEOLOGY is a set of beliefs which serves as guide on how power should be allocated or how a society should functions. We see many groups challenging the status quo, with non-state armed groups or power holders believing that the political ideology each one has would work better for the population.
The Penguin Atlas of War and Peace (2003) indicates that wars today are concentrated in the poorest countries. Inequality between groups or regions within a state produces grievances that consequently increase the chances of rebellion. In the Philippines, the Philippine Human Development Report (2005) posits that the frequency of armed conflict is not directly related to the incidence of income poverty. Rather, it is deprivation and injustice that lie at the heart of armed conflict.
A history of colonialism and the process of decolonization is one other cause of armed conflicts. Often, the transfer of power becomes problematic with groups within the country competing for control and authority.
Conflicts can also be caused by competition for resources, extreme abuse of human rights, desire of leaders to stay in power, narrow or extreme nationalism, and sympathy for kin across borders.
THE EFFECTS OF WAR
The most horrible effect of war is massive death.
Wars also results in the commitment of atrocities which are acts that go beyond what is tolerable because of the commonly held notion that in war, anything goes. Massacres, tortures, disappearances, sexual violence including rape, executions, assassinations, bombing, burning and kidnapping, are examples of atrocious acts.
Wars also cause people to flee their homes.
Wars cause weapons to proliferate. the issue of landmines is an other concern.
Small, arms are the weapon of choice for most armed conflicts as they are in expensive and handy.
Wars hold back development as huge amounts of government budgets are allocated for defense.
Wars see children tread the battle zones instead of play areas.
Wars have many other consequences. people lose their livelihoods and their access to food supply. Wars cause the loss of investments; destroy property and the environments, and raze opportunities for tourism. more so, wars disrupt children's education, and create fear and trauma among the population.
PEACE EDUCATION AND THE WAR SYSTEM
The UNESCO Preamble states that " if wars begin in the minds of men, then it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed." Peace education is one concrete way to challenge war. " Peace education seeks to develop a global perspective on the problems and an understanding that humans are a single species" (Reardon and Cabezuda, 2002). Peace education can help challenge thoughts that the world is divided into "good guys and bad guys" and that winning over the "bad guys" is the way to go. Peace education seeks to teach the concept of oneness of the human race. Most divisions are socially and culturally constructed. Differences are meant to enrich us, not divide us. Education is a force that can help reduce inter-group conflicts by enlarging people's social identifications beyond parochial ones. This can be done by expanding learners understanding and appreciation of security from the traditional national security concept to a more human and comprehensive one (Carnegie Council, 1997).
PEACE EDUCATION THEME 5: SHARING THE EARTH'S RESOURCES
There is a huge number of people who live in absolute poverty while there are those who are extremely wealthy, demonstrating the great contrast and financial divide between these groups.
The Human Development Report (2003) indicates that of the world's six billion live on less than $1?day. The extent of poverty is indicated as well in other measures.
The tragic gulf between the rich and the poor is definitely reflected in the Philippine situation.
this highly uneven distribution of wealth and resources is situation of violence known as structural violence. This violence refers to the systems, institutions, and policies that meet some people's human needs, rights, or wants at the expense of others. Hunger and poverty are symptoms of this violence. These systems, institutions and policies are well-entrenched in a global economic international order controlled by powerful nation-states; international agencies, and transnational corporations where i equitable trade practices prevail resulting in more tragic gaps between the rich and the poor.
OTHER CAUSES OF POVERTY
War and armed conflicts disrupt the people's livelihood and all productive activities.
Political systems created by local political elite that have combined with profit-motivated economic systems that reduce opportunities for most people to earn enough to meet their basic needs.
Inequitable distribution of wealth and resources much of which has begun in colonial history. Colonization has adverse impacts on the colonized nation's economic situation.
Environmental conditions. some places are blessed with more abundant resources while others have to contend with lands that cannot yield crops. over-utilization of resources.
Lack of opportunities such as employment.
Lack of education
CHALLENGING ECONOMIC IN EQUALITY
Grechen Correche C.