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Native Americans in the North

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Patricia Kobylarz

on 27 September 2012

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Transcript of Native Americans in the North

Jamestown, Virginia Powhatan wished for the Englishmen to become allies to the tribe, especially to gain English technology and trade goods. The Powhatans tried to drive the colonists out when they couldn't live peacefully due to the colonists trying to expand. This led to three Anglo-Powhatan wars. 1609 - 1613 - Anglo-Powhatan War, attacks from the Powhatans and the settlers ended with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. 1622 - Second Anglo-Powhatan War – Opechancanough, Powhatan’s brother, attacked English settlements, while the settlers destroyed Indian villages. In 1632, a peace treaty was formed. 1644 – Third Anglo-Powhatan War – Opechancanough attacked again. The colonists attacked back and destroyed the tribe’s power in two years. Chief Necotowance signed a peace treaty in 1646. Chickahominy Tribe Chickahominy were Indians part of the Powhatan tribe.

Deputy Governor George Yeardley asked for food from the Chickahominy, but they refused since they were annoyed at the repeated requests and were sometimes unable to provide for the colony.

Yeardley sent men to invade the territory and receive the food.The men killed 20 – 40 Indians. This ended the relations between the Indians and the colonists as well as pushed the Chickahominy to the Powhatans. Bacon's Rebellion Economic problems competition between Maryland and the Carolinas
decline in tobacco prices
increasing prices of England’s manufactured goods
limited markets. July 1675 – Doeg Indians raided a plantation due to nonpayment of items that the plantation owner got from the tribe. The colonists attacked back, but attacked the wrong tribe, Susquehanaugs. This caused more Indian raids.
Appomattox Indians
Occaneecheee Bacon attacked many friendly Indians like the: The rebellion ended with Bacon’s death and the hanging of twenty-three people, who had a part in the rebellion. Advancements in agricultural technology had led to increased harvest sizes, saved labor, and made selling farm goods to international markets possible.

John Deere, an American manufacturer, had pioneered the steel-plow industry and Cyrus McCormack had invented the mechanical reaper. Self-governing windmills had also been perfected. With so much advancement in agricultural technology and an expanded agricultural market, the need for agricultural land would make the "available" land in the west very enticing. The prospect of financial benefit would make the Americans apathetic to the Native Americans' habitancy of westward lands. Agriculture in the 1850s Delaware and Shawnee Indians Governor Robert Morris, of Pennsylvania, declared war with the Shawnee and Delaware Indians.

He issued the Scalp Act – which placed a bounty on the scalps from the heads of Indians. Native Americans on the plains relied on Buffalo for their essentials in life. (i.e. shelter, clothes food)
The approximately 50 million Buffalo that used to roam the plains were nearly completely hunted to extinction for sport, profit, and military gain Slaughter of the Buffalo
The civilization of the Indian is impossible while the buffalo remains upon the plains. I would not seriously regret the total disappearance of the buffalo from our western prairies, in its effect upon the Indians, regarding it as a means of hastening their sense of dependence upon the products of the soil and their own labors
--Annual Report of the Department of the Interior

"Let them kill, skin and sell until the buffalo are exterminated. Then your prairies can be covered with speckled cattle and the festive cowboy."

--General Phil Sheridan

There is no law that Congress can pass that will prevent the buffalo from disappearing before the march of civilization. There is no law which human hands can write, there is no law which a Congress of men can enact, that will stay the disappearance of these wild animals before civilization. They eat the grass. They trample upon the plains upon which our settlers desire to herd their cattle and their sheep. They range over the very pastures where the settlers keep their herds of cattle. They destroy the pasture. They are as uncivilized as the Indian."

--1874, U.S. Representative Conger. Government Policy Iroquois Indians Samuel de Champlain attacked the Iroquois Indians with two other Frenchmen and the Algonquians and Huron near Ticonderoga. Demand surged when a tanning technology was introduced that turned Buffalo hides into tougher material that was more suitable for leather
The advent of the repeating Rifle allowed for hunters to be able to rapidly kill Buffalo

In 1830, as many as 250 were killed per day by professional hunting groups
By the 1870's, after the invention of the repeating rifle, a single hunter could kill over 100 buffalo per day Technology The Iroquois traded with the Dutch, trading furs for guns and ammunition. The French would wage war with the Iroquois and use up most of the resources. The Iroquois sided with the British during the French and Indian War. The Transcontinental Railroad In the 1850s, the railroad industry was significantly affecting the canal business. The Native Americans and herds of buffalo in the path would be an obstacle for the possible construction of a railroad. Plymouth Rock Treaty between the colonists at Plymouth Rock and the Wampanoag tribe. It stated if an Indian did any harm to a colonist, the offender should be brought to the colonists to be punished, and vice-versa. Native American Rights (Government Policy) This was the first treaty between the colonists and the Indians, which lasted for 50 years. 15th Amendment Recognized right to vote for all men, including Native Americans Indian Appropriation Act Passed on March 3, 1871
Government was no longer allowed to treat Native American tribes as foreign nation (No more treaties could be made)
They would be treated as Wards of the State instead (policies will now be enacted via Congressional statutes and executive orders) Colonists' expansion and cruel treatment towards the Wampanoag were the cause of King Philip's War. The Transcontinental Railroad In 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act chartered the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad companies to construct a transcontinental railroad that would connect the east and west. Dawes Severalty Act Aimed to civilize Natives by dividing land
Heads of families were given 160 acres, single adults were given 80 acres, and children were given 40 acres
Surplus land was opened for settlement The war ended with the death of Metacom, also known as King Philip.

Colonists had to recovery from deaths, damage of property, and huge funds spent on the military.

Many Native Americans were sold into slavery or became servants. In 1865, the struggle to find workers, because of the difficulty of the labor, had caused Central Pacific's Charles to hire Chinese labor. Pequot Wars Land Disputes Lone Wolf v. Hickcock: The Kiowas and Comanches sued to stop the transfer of their lands without consent. The Court ruled that Congress had absolute power over tribal relations because it did not violate the 1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge.
Antiquities Act: This Congressional Act declared that Indian bones and objects found on federal land were the property of the United States.
State of Oklahoma: Congress established the State of Oklahoma by merging Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory in 1907.
Sioux Reservation: The Sioux sign an agreement with the U.S. government breaking up the great Sioux Reservation into six smaller reservations. The majority of their land was left open to settlers.
Oklahoma Organic Act: This Congressional Act divided Indian land into two territories in what is currently the state of Oklahoma: the Territory of Oklahoma in western Oklahoma was opened up to non-Indian settlement; and the Indian Territory in eastern Oklahoma was retained for continued Indian settlement.
Oklahoma Land Rush: The U.S. government opens for settlement land that were promised to be a permanent refuge for Native Americans.
Congress allowed railroad companies blanket approval for rights-of-way through Indian lands in 1899.
Oklahoma Territory: established by Congress on unoccupied lands in the Indian Territory, breaking a pledge to preserve this area for Native Americans, forcing them further west.
"The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement, explain American development." - Frederick Jackson Turner The war happened due to conflicts about property, dishonest traders, and hunting, the selling of alcohol to Indians, damaging Indian crops, and livestock.

The Pequot were weak due to smallpox and many Indians went to the Mohegan.

Treaty of Hartford: Any Pequot survivors would be given to Indian allies of the colonists as slaves. On May 10, 1869, the final spike was driven and the nation's first transcontinental railroad was completed. FRONTIER Driving the golden spike, joining the Central Pacific with the Union Pacific, would mark the end of the days of unavoidable life-threatening conditions for western settlers traveling west. Culture Assimilation Education: A Congressional Act authorized the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to enforce that Indian children attended schools designed and administered by non-Indians, such as the Carlisle Indian Industrial School.
The BIA would withhold rations and government annuities to parents who did not send their children to school.
1879 - First students arrive at United States Indian Training and Industrial School at Carlisle, Pennsylvania to "civilize" Native Americans
The school was the first off-reservation boarding school. It became a model for Indian boarding schools in other locations.
It was one of a series of 19th-century efforts by the United States government to assimilate Native American children from 140 tribes into the majority culture.
1880 - Civilization Regulations are established. These are a series of offenses that can only be violated by Native Americans (i.e. religion, practice of Medicine Men, Sun Dance)

"...Indians, despite what science at the time saw as their racial limitations, were capable of 'improvement' and encouraged the first sizeable appropriations for Indian schools during the early 1880s" - Ray Allen Billington George Armstrong Custer finds gold in the Black Hills in Dakota
Prior treaty requires US Government to protect Lakota Indians, but instead protects interests of Miners traveling to hills Gold in the Black Hills The Age of Manifest Destiny During the 1830's and 1840's the amount of settlers moving to the West coast increases
In 1841, a group of 48 wagons took the Oregon Trail to Sacramento
Many move for financial gain, others for religious reasons
The influx of settlers had a profound effect on the indigenous Native American populations of the area American Settlers' Perception of Native Americans Mapmakers showed the land beyond the Mississippi River as "The Great American Desert" until 1860. Early explorers like Zebulon Pike believed the region beyond the Mississippi River was uninhabitable and only suitable for barbarians. In 1850, approximately two-thirds of the Native Americans inhabited the Great Plains.
Historian Donald A. Grinde informs us that ". . .an increasing number of anthropologists and informed historians contend that the image of the American Indian in history, literature, and art has been largely an 'invented' tradition external to the American Indian experience" (Grinde). In retrospect, we realize that much of the preconceived notions about the Native Americans, such as the idea that they were barbarians for inhabiting "The Great American Desert", were falsehoods. Because this was not a recognized truth for many decades, much of the American settlers' actions towards the Native Americans were inhumane. Organization Native American Church: organized in Oklahoma to combine ancient Indian practice with Christian beliefs of morality and self-respect.
The Church prohibits alcohol, requires monogamy and family responsibility, and promotes hard work.
Today, the Church continues to play an important role in the lives of many Indian people. Sac and Fox tribes lead by Chief Black Hawk crossed the Mississippi, leaving their reservation, and returning to their ancestral land in Illinois
Militia was formed in Illinois, and pursued the band, eventually killing most of them, and forcing the rest back across the Mississippi The Black Hawk War of 1832 Governmental Actions Indian Citizenship Act(1924): This Congressional Act extended citizenship and voting rights to all American Indians.
Some Indians, however, did not want to become U.S. citizens, preferring to maintain only their tribal membership.
Indian Health Division: Congress established the Division to operate under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. "Federal officials, who had discovered that settling Indians on reservations was more difficult than assigning them lands, soon learned that keeping the natives withing the narrow confines of reserves was equally impossible" - Ray Allen Billington Government Orders Nez Percé War When Americans are found dead along the Salmon River, the government responds with force
Nez Percé try to flee to avoid battle, but are ultimately caught 30 miles south of the US-Canada border and forced onto Oklahoma territory
"The Indians of the Great Plains were formidable antagonists in any war" - Ray Allen Billington March 26, 1804.
Government gave first official notice for Indians to move west of the Mississippi River. One result of the mass movement of miners was smallpox
In 1837, two thirds of the Blackfoot tribe, and about one third of the Crow tribe were killed by a smallpox epidemic Smallpox ` Indian Land Many tribes lost land at the hands of the government. One tribe actually gained land Osage (a Sioux tribe)
Eel River Miami nations
Creeks The Bozeman Trail American Westward Migration: Fort Laramie Treaties In 1851, the Fort Laramie treaties were signed with the Lakota, Cheyenne, and other Plains tribes. This treaty relinquished the borders of the tribes' reservations and opened up the Plains, in exchange for payment to the tribes, for passage westward. The ratification of these treaties was vital in the legal settlement of the west.

On August 5, 1851, Santee Sioux Chief Little Crow signed a treaty with the federal government, ceding almost all of the Sioux territory in Minnesota. Even though he did not approve of the treaty, he abided by it for several years.

These treaties show that the American government took advantage of the Native Americans and forced them to sign treaties ceding their land. The Native Americans were unable to protest the treaties and the continued cession of the land. The domineering demeanor of the American government led to the Native Americans' resentful sentiments towards the American government. With the additional movement West, more trails were constructed
One of these was the Bozeman trail, which passed through Sioux territory
This ultimately lead to the Sioux War of 1865-1867 In 1862, Congress passed the Homestead Act. This major piece of legislation made western lands belonging to many Indian Nations available to non-Indian American settlers. Typically, 160 acres were given to eligible families. This began mass migrations to Indian lands for settlement. This left many Native Americans with nowhere to go.

"The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement, explain American development." - Frederick Jackson Turner The Homestead Act Created in 1834
At first called "Indian Office"
Within the Department of War
In 1849, name changed to "US Bureau of Indian Affairs"
Transferred to Office of the Interior The US Bureau of Indian Affairs The Sioux Uprising/Santee War On August 18, 1862, the Sioux in Minnesota declared war on white settlers, killing over 1000. They were eventually defeated by the US Army. Over 400 Indians were tried for murder, 38 were publicly executed. Relocation In 1864, the federal government forced the relocation of 8000 Navajo 300 miles from their ancestral homeland in northeastern Arizona. The march ended in confinement on barren lands, as well as malnutrition, disease, and hunger. In 1866, the Navajo signed a treaty allowing the US to return to their traditional home and rebuild their communities. They returned to their homeland in 1868. Second Sioux War Result of Sioux rejecting offers to cede right of way north of the Platte river for purposes of the Northern Pacific railroad
"Custer's Last Stand": Custer took 265 of his men into battle, unfortunately discovering the main Sioux camp of over 2500 soldiers
Outnumbered 10:1 every last one of his men was killed
This caused massive outrage across the nation, and the Sioux were subsequently beaten and surrendered in October 1876 Third Sioux War The Ghost Dance War: a series clashes from November 1890 to January 1891 between Native Americans and the United States government.

A series of treaty violations by the US involving land divisions among tribes in South Dakota led to unresolved grievances which later turned into armed conflict.

This was the last of the Sioux Wars. The Plains Indian Wars (1854-1890) In order to ease rising tensions with Indians, King George prohibited colonists from settling West of the Appalachian Mountains. The British government looked to keep peace, realizing the cost of war. The French and Indian War pushed them to want peace even as more and more Americans wanted to push West. Proclamation of 1763 Virtual siege of Tuscon
Sand Creek Massacre
Fetterman Massacre
Custer's Last Stand "As a boy, he saw the buffalo driven out by the settlers; he saw the Indian retreat as the pioneer advanced. His training is that of the old West, in its frontier days. And now the frontier opportunities are gone." - Frederick Jackson Turner The US fought in the Plains Indian Wars primarily to support westward expansion.
Indian hostility arose from the travelers' usage of Indians' resources.
Bloodshed ended at the Battle of Wounded Knee in South Dakota. The Paxton Boys looked to restore order after Pontiac's rebellion. Until they were thwarted in their efforts to murder the entire Indian population, the Paxton boys brutally killed any Native American they could find, particularly the reformed Christians, because they were easier to kill. Paxton Boys This Iroquois tribe resided around the Susquehanna river, until the majority of their population was killed off by armed soldiers on December 14th, 1763. Conestoga Indians Technology The 14 remaining tribesmen were killed by 50 armed soldiers in a raid 13 days later. Continued Sioux Unrest - End of First Sioux War The Oglala Sioux Chief Red Cloud fended off the US Army to protect Sioux lands against American construction of the Bozeman trail. Smallpox Lewis and Clark Expedition Between 1772 and 1781, Northern tribes were dying off in huge numbers as smallpox and measles were rampant. In this time, disease claimed more than 80% of the Arikara and 50% of the Peigan Blackfeet. In 1803, Louis and Clark organized the famous three year trip to survey the West with the help of Shoshone Indian, Sacagawea.

The three encounter numerous tribes as they opened up the West for settlement and expansion. Indian Country Crimes Act (1817) Federal jurisdiction over crimes between non-Indians and Indians
Maintained exclusive tribal authority of all Indian crimes.
Affected all Indian tribes
Gave the government influence in Indian affairs, possibly resulting in unfair rulings Johnson v. McIntosh (1823) Court held that that Indian tribes had no power to grant lands to anyone other than the federal government.

Government held title to all Indian lands based upon "doctrine of discovery" (belief that initial "discovery" of lands gave title to the government responsible for the discovery).

Affected all Indian tribes

Indian rights to complete sovereignty, as independent nations, were destroyed This Ohio town was the location of yet another American mass murder in response to Indian rebellion. Gnadenhutten, Ohio Upper Midwest In 1869, the first Sioux War ended with the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The US agreed to abandon Fort Smith, Kearny, and Reno. In 1782, Captain David Williamson and about 90 volunteer militiamen slaughtered 62 adults and 34 children (after the group had tried to retrieve crops they'd been forced to leave when they were forcibly relocated) Indian Office Federal Agency Established by the Secretary of War

In charge of the land left to Indians by the government
Gave government power over Indians In 1786, Congress passes the Northwest Ordinance, designed to encourage westward expansion. The Northwest Ordinance Cherokee Phoenix (1828) First American newspaper published in a Native American language

Made by Elias Boudinot and Sequoyah

Still affected all Indian tribes

Made the Indians a part of the daily lifestyle. That being said, it also promised "the utmost good faith shall always be observed toward the Indians . . . in their property, rights, and liberty they shall never be disturbed." Conflict, Land Trade, and Expansion by Tribe and location This clause was added to the constitution, stating "Congress has the power to...regulate trade with Indian Tribes" Indian Commerce Clause This clause was frequently used as an excuse for federal control over Indian tribes. In 1790, an act was passed to place almost all interaction between Indians and non Indians under Federal control. Indian Trade and Intercourse Act Tribe Culture Lakota tribes and the Oglala. North and South Dakota
The Osage Missouri (North) and Arkansas
Shawnees The Northwestern Frontier
Delawares, Potawatomi, Miami, and Eel River Miami nations Wabash River One of the big Tribes in the North was known as the Algonquian tribe.
The Earth originated when the Great Turtle rose and carried the Earth on its back. Lakota tribes and the Oglala. Expand into what is now North Dakota and South Dakota during 1804

One of the final expansions of Indian tribes AKA Indian Intercourse Act (1834)
Established an Indian Territory in the North-West to "replace" the land that they'd been forced to leave
All whites were prohibited from entering this area without license Nonintercourse Act of 1834 The Osage Signed the Osage Treaty, ceding their lands in what is now Missouri and Arkansas to U. S.
Were to receive Fort Osage near Sibley, Missouri
Occurred in 1808 The Shawnees Specifically by the Ohio River
Tecumseh and the Prophet from 1808 to 1812
Tecumseh organized a defensive confederacy of Indian tribes of the Northwestern frontier who wanted to make the Ohio River the permanent boundary between the U.S and Indian land.

William Henry Harrison, governor of Ohio, led troops to Prophetstown
Battle of Tippicanoe, destroyed the town as well as the remnants of Tecumseh's Indian confederacy.
Failed to stop American expansion From the boundaries of Indian Country to trading to violence against Indians, Congress controlled everything. These acts remained in some kind of use until 1834. Delawares, Potawatomi, Miami, and Eel River Miami nations Treaty of Fort Wayne causes these tribes to ceded 3 million acres of their land to the U.S in 1809. Finalized in 1810.
Along the Wabash River

Treaty was done for a large amount of money. In 1790, When the Army (1,500 soldiers strong) invaded Shawnee territory, they were defeated a year later with 900 casualties and 600 deaths. US Army v. Shawnee Marked the end of an era of fighting.

The 1795 treaty ended the ongoing war between the US Army and many tribes near Ohio.

The tribes ceded 2/3rds of Ohio and much more land in exchange for a permanent boundary with the Americans. The Treaty of Greenville Greatly expanded US land claim, putting large areas of Indian occupation under American control. The Louisiana Purchase Cook, Sherburne F. 1978. "Historical Demography". In California, edited by Robert F. Heizer, pp. 91–98. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Divine, Robert A. America, past and Present. 7th ed. Vol. 1. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1984. Print. AP Edition.

Grinde, Donald A., and Bruce E. Johansen. Exemplar of liberty: native America and the evolution of democracy. Los Angeles, Calif.: American Indian Studies Center, University of California, Los Angeles, 1991. Print.

Jackson, Andrew. “Jackson’s Third Annual Message.” US Congress. Capitol Building. 6 Dec. 1829. The Nomadic Spirit. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.synaptic.bc.ca/‌ejournal/‌JacksonThirdAnnualMessage.htm>.

Marshall, John(a). “Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia.” US Supreme Court. Washington DC. 1831. From Revolution to Reconstruction. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://odur.let.rug.nl/‌~usa/‌D/‌1801-1825/‌marshallcases/‌mar03.htm>.

Marshall, John(b). “Worcester v. Georgia Ruling.” US Supreme Court. Washington DC. 1832. Civics Online. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.civics-online.org/‌library/‌formatted/‌texts/‌worcester.html>.

"Act for the Government and Protection of Indians." Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. Ed. CIR Volunteers. Indian Canyon, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.indiancanyon.org/ACTof1850.html>.

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. Supreme Court. 1831. Mount Holyoke. Mount Holyoke College, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/cherokee.htm>.

Cook, Sherbume. "Native American Population in California." Chart. Historical Demography. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 91-98. Print.

Dollar, Clyde D. "The High Plains Smallpox Epidemic of 1837-1838." N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/967216>.

"Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California (American Indians)." Five Views: An Ethnic Historic Site Survey for California (American Indians). National Park Service, 17 Nov. 2004. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views1c.htm>.

Lewis, James. "Black Hawk War of 1832." Black Hawk War of 1832. Illinois Humanities Council, 2000. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/>.
United States of America. Fish and Wildlife Service. American Buffalo. Fish and Wildlife Service, Jan. 1998. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. <http://www.fws.gov/species/species_accounts/bio_buff.html>. Works Cited Native American History of the Present Day United States (North) By: Patricia Kobylarz, Izabela Serowik, Nauman Ahmad, Mashuk Arif, Ian Boros, Abdullah Siddiki, Andrew Trainor, and Philip Vendola. Historian Donald A. Grinde's Account and Analysis of Roger Williams' Interaction With The Native Americans Roger Williams was generally characterized as a free thinker. He studied at London's Charterhouse School and Cambridge University. Like many other Puritans, Williams made the voyage to America to save the souls of the Indians. A few months after his arrival at Boston, Williams was learning the Algonquian language. Williams would master the languages of many other tribes as well. Williams' quick mastery of the Algonquians' language did not alarm the other settlers seeking the souls of the Natives. What caused him to be such a controversial person were the things he learned from the natives as he picked up their language.
When William Bradford asked Williams to compose a paper on the compact which established the Puritan colony, he declared it invalid. Williams argued that the Puritans could not claim land because of discovery when it had already been discovered and inhabited. The discontent authorities frequently relocated Williams because of the trouble he was causing. During his travels, he befriended Massoit, a sachem among the Wampanoags, and Canonicus, and elderly leader of the Narragansetts. This friendship would serve Williams well when the Puritans' orthodox magistrates would seek to exile him. Williams established his own colony, Providence, to escape the oppressive Puritan magistrates. He would serve as a peacemaker between people of various cultures. During his return to England in 1650, he petitioned the preservation of Native American culture to the English government.
"Perhaps the greatest backhanded tribute of Williams' life was paid him by his master antagonist John Cotton, who wrote that Williams' "dangerous opinions subverted the state and government of this country, and tended to unsettle the kingdoms and commonwealths of Europe" (Grinde 14). The "Frontier Thesis" or "Turner Thesis," presented by Frederick Jackson Turner in the 1890's, argued that the Frontier had shaped American culture in that it was responsible for ideas of individualism and self reliance in the ideal American. He also argued that the frontier acted as a sort of "safety valve" for social discontent, as those unhappy could always migrate West. Also central to Turner's Thesis was the idea of frontiers being "successive," that each frontier was populated, and then a new, distinct frontier formed. The Frontier Thesis Modern historians reject this theory completely. Newer arguments make a point of factoring in ethnic diversity in the West, as well as the many directions different groups were moving in. Turner's Thesis sits heavily on the idea of the (ideal) white settler settling the West, and only the West.

Turner's Thesis also implies that after about 1890, that the history of people moving West simply "ended." In reality, more people moved West after 1900 than before. The Frontier Thesis: Rejected Our presentation is designed to carefully organize our past, to analyze how Indians and settlers affected different regions over time. As time progressed, the tribes and the land did as well, making their histories unique in their own ways. This system allows us to show the flaws in the old ways of thinking, and expand on them to include the culture and ideas of the variety of peoples. We hope to show how not all of Native American history is of oppression or uprising, but that some groups made progress in helping and compromising. This Presentation Ray Allen Billington's "Westward Expansion" Ray Allen Billington and his widely used textbook, Westward Expansion, described Native Americans as objects, disregarding their culture completely. He seemed to care only of the conflicts with Native Americans, the “Indian Wars,” while providing only broad descriptions about who the Indians really were. Today, this type of argument is considered highly inaccurate and even ignorant. Even the title of Billington's main work: “Westward Expansion,” reflects the linear structure of his idea. In addition, modern Western history focuses less on conflict (though does not ignore it) and more on the West's developing economy and governments. Our presentation attempts to provide accurate, non-generalized information about Native American cultures and customs while touching on the meaningful events that changed these cultures. Westward Expansion: Rejected "The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement, explain American development." - Frederick Jackson Turner "Stand at Cumberland Gap and watch the procession of civilization, marching single file--the buffalo following the trail to the salt springs, the Indian, the fur-trader and hunter, the cattle-raiser, the pioneer farmer--and the frontier has passed by. Stand at South Pass in the Rockies a century later and see the same procession with wider intervals between." - Frederick Jackson Turner Idea of caring for Mother Nature is very important.
Take responsibility for your actions.
Women are just as intelligent and respected even more than men.
Women chose tribal leader, demonstrating a matriarchal society.
Women make decisions with men, but men represent tribe.
When animals are killed, every part must be used.
Buffaloes were very important to the Native American culture, one of the reasons for their near extermination by settlers.
Tribes were further divided into clans.
People of the same clan were not allowed to mate.
There was no idea of individual land, land belonged to Mother Nature/tribal leader. Similarities The differences in Native American cultures derived primarily from the difference in location, lifestyle, and food choices. Differences Notable Incidents in the Bloody Warfare Sand Creek Massacre On November 29, 1864, 700 US soldiers of the Colorado Territory Militia attacked and destroyed a village of friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho. Fetterman Massacre On Dec. 21, 1866, 82 men under the command of William J. Fetterman were killed by an Indian ambush.
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