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ANCIENT CHINA AND INDIA
Transcript of ANCIENT CHINA AND INDIA
RIVER DYNASTIES IN CHINA
MAIN IDEA: Early rulers introduce ideas about government and society that shape Chinese civilization.
Explain the effects of geography on cultural development in China.
To understand dynastic cycles and Chinese culture.
Eastern Asia. Ocean, mountains, deserts isolate China from other areas
Huang He (“Yellow River”) in north.
Yangtze in south
• Huang He floods can devour whole villages
• Geographic isolation means lack of trade; must be self-sufficient
Mandate of Heaven:
the belief that a just ruler had divine approval
Control Through Feudalism:
system where kings give land to nobles in exchange for services
—pattern of the rise and decline of dynasties
Chinese word symbols are called CHARACTERS. Each character is written by using different strokes. In your piece of paper, practice the ones below first.
CHAPTER 2 SECTION 3
CYCLE 14 -15
CHAPTER 2 SECTION 4
SO, WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT CHINA?
INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS
OBJECTIVE: Describe the impact of geography on
the Indus Valley culture.
MAIN IDEA: The first Indian civilization builds well-planned cities on the banks of the Indus River.
II TERM WORKSHOP
DOWNLOAD AND PRINT THE WORKSHOP FOR THIS TERM FROM MY WEBSITE AND BRING IT FOR THE FOLLOWING CLASSES!
After you finish, paste the piece of paper in your notebook
Xiǎo - Small Sì - Four Huà - Change Shàng - Up
Èr - Two Wǔ - Five Sān - Three Dà - Big
WORKBOOK PAGES 19-20
•The group is more important than the individual
• Family is central social institution; respect for parents a virtue
• Elder males control family property
• Women expected to obey all men, even sons
• Spirits of dead ancestors can affect family fortunes
• Oracle bones used to consult gods; supreme god, Shang Di
CONFUCIANISM AND TAOISM
Development of Writing
• Writing system uses symbols to represent syllables; not ideas
• People of different languages can use same system
• Huge number of characters make system difficult to learn
HIMALAYAS - World’s tallest mountain ranges separate it from rest of Asia
Indus and Ganges rivers from flat, fertile plain—the Indo-Gangetic
Southern India, a dry plateau flanked by mountains
Monsoons: Seasonal winds—monsoons—dominate India’s climate
• Floods along the Indus unpredictable; river can change course
• Rainfall unpredictable; could have droughts or floods
EMPEROR: Qin Shi Huangdi
Unifies China, ends fighting, conquers new lands
• Creates 36 administrative districts controlled by Qin officials
• With legalist prime minister, murders Confucian scholars, burns books
• Establishes an autocracy, a government with unlimited power
A Program of Centralization
• Shi Huangdi builds highways, irrigation projects; increases trade
• Sets standards for writing, law, currency, weights and measures
• Harsh rule includes high taxes and repressive government
Great Wall of China
• Emperor forces peasants to build Great Wall to keep out invaders
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
Influenced an area larger than Mesopotamia or Egypt
About 7000 B.C., evidence of agriculture and domesticated animals
By about 3200 B.C., people farming in villages along Indus River
By 2500 B.C., people build cities of brick laid out on grid system
Engineers create plumbing and sewage systems
Indus Valley called Harappan civilization after Harappa, a city
• City built on mud-brick platform to protect against flood waters
• Brick walls protect city and citadel—central buildings of the city
• Streets in grid system are 30 feet wide
• Lanes separate rows of house (which featured bathrooms)
• Had writing systems of 400 symbols; but scientists can’t decipher it
• Harappan cities appear uniform in culture; no great social divisions
• Animals important to the culture; toys suggest prosperity
Role of Religion
• Priests closely linked to rulers
• Some religious artifacts reveals links to modern Hindu culture
• Had thriving trade with other peoples, including Mesopotamia
• Signs of decline begin around 1750 B.C.
• Earthquakes, floods, soil depletion may have caused decline
• Around 1500 B.C., Aryans enter area and become dominant
COMPLETE WORKBOOK PAGES 17-18