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Transcript of WORLD ENGLISH
English as a National Language
English as a Second Language
English as a Foreign Language
Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English
- The phases or processes through which varieties of English go.
Exonormative model •
Transported variety •
- English spoken by the settlers that arrived in a particular country
- Locally grown variety/ nativised/ indigenized/acculturated
- process through which an imported variety goes on its way to becoming a local variety
Three Main Proposals
Non-recognition of the local variety
- At this stage the speakers of the local variety are prejudiced against it.
Existence of the local and imported variety existing side by side
- The local variety is now used in a wide number of situations and for a wide range of purposes but is still considered inferior to the imported model.
- the local variety becomes recognized as the norm and becomes socially accepted.
(studied the development of a particular variety – Fijian English – and proposed a ‘life cycle of non-native Englishes)
- when English arrives in a place where it has not been spoken before and remains to stay.
- relatively long phase during which the new variety of English starts to reﬂect the local culture and becomes diﬀerent from the transported variety.
Expansion in use
- sees the new variety being used in an increasing number of situations and for more and more purposes.
- the use of the local variety as a language learning model in school.
Decline in Use
- He suggests that the Philippines (Tagalog) and Malaysia (Malay) are examples of countries where the increased oﬃcial promotion of a local language results in a decline in the use of the local variety of English.
- This is when English begins to be used in a country where, previously, English was not spoken.
- This means that the variety spoken is closely modelled on the variety imported by the settlers
- It sees the establishment of a new identity with the coupling of the imported and local varieties.
- which is when the new variety becomes gradually accepted as the local norm or model.
- At this stage the new variety has emerged and this new variety reﬂects local identity and culture.
The new variety has been considered inferior at first but gradually becomes accepted and institutionalized.
Once this happens, it will
develop into more new varieties.
English as an International Language or World Englishes?
*Political debates over the spread of English:
1. Is it due to imperialism or linguicism?
2. Is it due to a genuine desire of people to learn English?
*Imperialism as the cause:
-British and American English
-Certain varieties of English are considered superior in a range of international context.
*Genuine desire to learn English*
• People are making sensible and pragmatic choices
• People realize that they need to learn English as it is the international language
fear that the need to use English will
threaten their own language.
• Local English reflect local cultures and ways of thinking.
• Many non-Anglo or non-Western ways of thinking have received international attention through English.
• ‘monomodel’ approach to ‘polymodel’ approach •
Distributed (adoption + conformity)
Spread (adaptation + non-conformity)
•A different set of language may be developed from dialects
•"Variants of the same language, different actualisations" (e.g, English within England)
New Varieties of English: ENGLISHES or AUTONOMOUS LANGUAGES?
World Englishes: Implications for International Communication and ELT
, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. (pp. 27-37)
Dialects (Local Communication and Expression of Identity)
Registers (Used for International Communication)
Can be intralingual and interlingual
exists when one dialect is privileged as standard
exists in processes of resource allocation, vindication or vilification in discourse of one language rather than another
•A speaker adapts to the situation
- Identity VS Intelligibility
• Comprehension is based on motivation
•"Our speech or writing in English needs to be intelligible only to those with whom we wish to communicate in English" (Smith, 1992)