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Anthony Burke

on 14 June 2015

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Transcript of Water

How Ocean Water Differs from Fresh Water
Sources of Fresh Water
Water's Effect on Shaping Earth's Surface
Drainage Basins
A drainage basin or watershed is an area of land land funnels rainwater into a common river

It is a vast network of streams that connect to rivers which connect to larger river that lead to a common main river

One drainage basin is usually separated from by rocky, mountainous region or and area of high ground. Such as the Rocky Mountains which separate the drainage basins of the east side from those of the west side
Distribution of Water
Freezing Point
Melting Point
The Water Cycle
Density of Salt Water
Freezing Point of Salt Water
Ground Water
If water vapor turns right into a solid it is called deposition
Some examples of this are water vapor to ice and physical vapor to film
Water is heated which causes it to evaporate
Heat added to frozen water causes it to melt
Heat taken away from a liquid causes it to freeze


If you take heat away from water vapor causes condensation
Some examples of this are water vapour to dew and water vapor to liquid water
If ice turns right into water vapor it is called sublimation
Some examples of this are dry ice and Freeze-dying
Is the point when solid turns into liquid
For ice the melting point is also 0 degrees Celsius
Is the point when water freezes into a solid
For fresh water the freezing point is 0 degrees Celsius
Composition of Salt Water
Salt water has been in the ocean for millions of years
When water travels from rivers to the ocean it picks up materials that dissolve into the water
These materials are called dissolved solids
Volcanoes also release materials when they have undersea eruptions
Sodium and Chloride ions are two of the most common dissolved solids in ocean
Run-off is an important part of our water system
Run-off feeds the lakes, streams and rivers of our world, which eventually feed the ocean.
Gravity moves the run-off on it's journey.
Density is a measure of the mass of an object of a given volume
Ocean water is denser than fresh water
Ocean water has density of 1027kg/m3
Fresh water has density of 1000kg/m3
In some extremely salty oceans you would float more easily than in freshwater

Different freezing point than fresh water
Fresh water freezes at 0 degrees celsius
The salt in salt water lowers the freezing point
Therefore the freezing point for salt water is -1.9 degrees celsius

When you add heat to water it causes evaporation
Water turns from liquid to gas
An example is steam coming out of a hot kettle
If you take heat away from a liquid it is called solidification
An example is when water turns into ice
Water Cycle is caused by heat energy from the Sun being added or taken away from water

This causes it to move through the cycle, changing states as it goes
Biological Weathering
Physical Weathering
Chemical Weathering
Moving Water
Features Carved by Glaciers
Features Deposited by Glaciers
Studies Hydrology
Studies the Earth's water systems
Finds solutions to problems of water quality and quantity
They use their knowledge to help control catastrophes such as flooding or soil erosion.
Studies Oceanography
Focus their studies specifically on oceans.
Also study marine organisms and their ecosystems
And on waves, ocean currents, the tectonic plates as well as physical and chemical properties of within the ocean.
The Ground
Ground made up mostly of rock will not absorb the surface water easily which increases run-off.
The steep the land land, the faster the water will flow downhill. The faster water move, the less it will be absorbed into the ground. This decreases run-off
Factors Effecting Run-off
Whereas ground made up of mostly soil will absorb a lot more water which will decrease run-off
On the Land
If it rains heavily the ground will become saturated quickly and it cannot absorb any more which increases run-off
If it rains for a long time the ground will become saturated like when it rains heavily, this also increases run-off
Vegetation absorbs water, so areas with a lot of grass, trees, bushes and/or shrubs will have less run-off then areas without vegetation
Development in the area (pavement and concrete covering the ground) with not absorb water, increasing run-off. Whereas areas with more soil and vegetation will have less run-off. Also development can channel run-off into storm sewers which increases run-off as well.
Two thirds of the world's fresh water is found in Glaciers and they cover 10 percent of the Earth's landscape

Glaciers are large blocks of ice of ice that move downhill

Glaciers form when more snow falls then melts in the summer and after many years it compiles into a very deep pile that compresses the lower snow into ice
Ice Age
From 70 000 to 10 000 years ago in the last ice Glaciers covered most of the northern regions including all of British Columbia.

This affected the climate because alot of the water that would have flowing in rivers, streams, lakes, and in the air as clouds was trapped in ice. As a result, Ocean levels dropped 100m below their current level.
Glaciers move downhill until they are stopped. Glacier can be stopped either by reaching a ocean. Or melting because of a rise in temperature. Melting can also cause a Glacier to recede. Currently most of the worlds Glaciers are receding.
When a Glacier hits an ocean gravity will start to push it over the side and into the ocean in chunks called icebergs.
Stoping Glaciers
Types of Glaciers
Alpine and Valley Glaciers are found in rocky and mountainous regions. They are also usually more long and thin.
Continental Glaciers or ice sheets are found in flat open spaces and are huge and cover huge areas. They are usually bigger and wider. The two biggest continental glaciers are in Antarctica and Greenland.
Alpine Glacier
Valley Glacier
Continental Glacier
Main Drainage Basins of British Columbia
Ground water is water found underground in the pores in soil, sand and rock. It is stored in and moves slowly through geologic formations of soil, sand and rocks called aquifers.

The round water follows the pores of the rock and flows like a river deeper and deeper until it reaches an layer of rock that is porous and lets the water pass through, this layer of rock is called an acquifer.
City Water Supply
People living in cities or towns like us here in Vancouver, get their water from reservoirs.

Reservoirs are large bodies of water that are either natural or man made.

The reservoirs fill up and supply the people when they need through pipes.
Rural Area Water Supply
In rural areas, getting water is not as easy, water is taken from deep in the ground by use of wells.

Wells are deep, narrow holes drilled or dug into the ground until water can be found. The layer of the ground where we can find water is called the water table which is found in the zone of saturation.

Below the water table, all the pores in the rock are already filled withe water. This area is known as the impermeable.
An Arete is a narrow ridge between two cirques
A Cirque is a bowl-shaped valley at the head of a glacier
A Fiord is a narrow inlet of ocean between steep cliffs carved by glaciers
A Hanging valley is a u-shaped valley cut off by a bigger valley created by a larger glacier
A Horn is a pyramid-shaped peak located between three cirques
A Erratic is a large boulder deposited on the ground by a glacier
A Esker is a winding ridge of material deposited by a stream running under a glacier
A Moraine is a ridge of rocky material deposited by a glacier
A Outwash is material deposited by water melting glaciers
Weathering is the process of breaking down rock into smaller fragments
If physical or chemical weathering has been caused by a plant or animal, then the process is called biological weathering
An example of this would be tree roots growing into fractures in a rock and prying the rock apart
Physical weathering is when rocks are broken down by physical means
Climate effects how fast or slow the rock will weather
Physical weathering is greatest with lots of moisture in the air rain or snow
It is also likely when there are large temperature differences between summer and winter or daytime and nighttime
For example if water gets in the cracks of a rock and then it freezes overnight it will expand and break the rock
This can be called ice or frost wedging
Chemical weathering is when a chemical reaction causes rocks to break down or decompose
Chemical weathering is greatest in climates with high temperatures
Is also likely in areas with lots of rainfall and high levels of pollution
Rust on your bike or car is also caused by chemical weathering
The moisture in the air reacts with the iron which causes it to rust
Another form of chemical weathering is when plants die and decompose
Underground Chemical Weathering
Chemical weathering also occurs underground
When carbon dioxide is released and mixes with rainwater the rain droplets become acidic
Rain water then transfers this acidic water into the ground making the ground water acidic
This acidic water then starts to break down underground rocks
Little by little the small gaps in the rock have grown bigger and formed underground caves
If the dissolved rock lies near the surface then it can also lead to sinkholes
An area with many sinkholes is called karst
Erosion is a natural process which is usually made by rock and soil being loosened from the earth's surface at one location and moved to another
Greatest agent of erosion is moving water
Water has the ability to break down rock materials into sediment
Sediment can be transported far away in large amounts
Rivers in mountainous or steep regions are very powerful and easily carve away the earth
Rapids are the most powerful areas of the area and create the most erosion
When rain soaks hills or mountains the soil and rock material become heavy and are unable to resist gravity
This can result in large parts of the mountain or hill to fall of or slide downward
This sudden movement sometimes will result in landslides
Landslides are very dangerous and lethal
Glaciers have shaped much of our provinces landscape
BC looked much different 10 000 years ago and had much more ice
As gravity pulled them down they scraped and carved out our landscape
Because glaciers are so large they can carve out whole valleys
Water and ice do not only erode land but they also deposit materials they pick up
A Delta is an area of built-up sediment deposited where a river empties in an ocean or lake
An example of this is in Ladner
Glaciers also deposit things when they melt
By: Logan Hale and Anthony Burke
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