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Scientific Outcomes Semester 1

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by

Angelique Woods

on 8 December 2014

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Transcript of Scientific Outcomes Semester 1

Proteins
Lipids
Carbs
Cell Types
Eukaryotes
Has a nucleus
Has membrane bound organelles
Large and complex
Anything but bacteria
Organelles
Diffusion
The movement of
molecules
from areas of
high
concentration to areas of
low
concentration
Osmosis
The movement of
water

from areas of
high
concentration to areas of
low
concentration
Organic Compounds
Cell Types and Organelles
Transport
Scientific Outcomes Semester 1
Made of:
Sugars and Starches
Made of
Fats and Oils
Function:
Waterproofs
Insulates
Protects
Made of:
Amino Acids
Function:
Fights disease
Builds bones
Repairs
Long term energy
Enzymes
Transports materials
Nucleic Acid
Made of:
DNA and RNA
Function:
Carries genetic information
Prokaryotes
No nucleus
No membrane bound organelles
Small and simple
Only bacteria
Nucleus
Contains DNA
Mitochondria
Site of respiration
Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis
Chloroplast
Site of photosynthesis
Lysosomes
Digests large particles
Smooth E.R.
No ribosomes
Transports lipids
Rough E.R.
Has ribosomes
Transports proteins
Facilitated Diffusion
The movement of
molecules
from areas of
high
concentration to areas of
low
concentration with the use a
protein channel
Active Transport
The movement of
molecules
from an area of
low
concentration to an area of
high
concentration with the use of a protein pump
This uses ATP/energy
Angelique Woods P.6
Endocytosis
The process of taking material into a cell by the infoldings of the cell membrane
Exocytosis
The process where the cell releases a large amount of material
Cell Organization
Cell
The basic unit of life
Tissue
A group of similar cells performing a specific function
Organ
Many groups of tissues working together
Organ System
A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Quick energy
Function:
Photosynthesis and Respiration
Photosynthesis
Light + H2O + CO2
→O2 + Glucose
Reactants
Products
Respiration
O2 + Glucose


ATP + H2O + CO2
Reactants
Products
Mitosis
P
rophase
Produces 2 genetically identical cells
Cells are diploid (full number of chromosomes)
Somatic (body) cells
1st phase of mitosis
Cromatin condenses into chromosomes
Centrioles move to opposite ends
Nuclear membrane dissolves
M
etaphase
2nd phase of mitosis
Chromatids line up in the center
A
naphase
3rd phase of mitosis
The chromosomes are pulled apart
T
elophase
The 4th and final stage of mitosis
The nuclear membrane reforms
Chromosomes uncoil
Cells pull apart but do not sperate
Meiosis
Prouduces four geneticaly different cells
Cells are haploid (have half the number of chromosomes)
Gamete (sperm and egg) cells
Two haploid gametes make a diploid zygote (fertalized egg)
Prophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase I
Metaphase II
Anaphase I
Anaphase II
Telophase I
Telophase II
so fun
Amazing
cool
Crossing over of homologous chromosomes
Same as mitosis prophase
Repeat prophase I without the crossing over
Chromatids line up in the center
Repeat metaphase
Chromatids move apart
Repeat anaphase
Repeat telophase
Cell begins to sperate
Punnett Squares
Heterozygous- a pair of genes where on is dominant and one is recessive (ex. Yy)
Homozygous dominant- a pair of genes where both are dominant (ex. YY)
Homozygous recessive- a pair of genes where both are recessive (ex yy)
Practice problem
Sophia breeds her white rabbit and her heterozygous black rabbit. If white is recessive to black then what are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the rabbitts' offspring
Bb
B
b
b
b
bb
Bb
bb
Genotypes
50% heterozygous (Bb)
50% homozygous recessive (bb)
Phenotypes
50% black
50% white
DNA Structure
Needs:
A sugar (deoxyribose)
A phosphate
A base
One structure with all of these a nucleotide
Bases
A
denine (pairs with
T
)
T
hymine (pairs with
A
)
G
uanine (pairs with
C
)
C
ytosine (pairs with
G
)
DNA Replication
Use a DNA polymerase to "unzip" the DNA
Individual nucleotides join to form a new DNA molecule
End result: Two new strands of DNA
Transcription and Translation
Transcription
How mRNA is made
RNA polymerase "unzips" the DNA. Free floating RNA nucleotides then come in and attatch to the DNA molecules, using the strand as a template. This happens in the nucleus
The mRNA strand then heads to the ribosomes to make protiens
Codons
A codon is made of every three consecutive nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid
One codon (AUG) is either a start codon (something that signifies the beginning of a polypeptide chain)
Stop codons signal for the end of a polypeptide chain
Anticodons
Part of tRNA
Corresponds to a mRNA codon
Translation
Begins when mRNA molecules atatch to a ribosome
Each codon pairs with the complimentary anticodon, carried by a tRNA molecule.
The tRNA molecule also carries an amino acid
The ribosome will bind the tRNA molecules and amino acids, creating the polypeptide chain
The End
Full transcript