After researching the problem and discussing his ideas with others, Jean-Pierre combined some of history's best ideas into a new innovative concept.

**2.1 Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process, i.e., identify the need or problem, research the problem, develop possible solutions, select the best possible solution(s), construct a prototype, test and evaluate, communicate the solution(s), and redesign.**

1.1 Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process: identify the problem, research the problem, develop possible solutions, select the best possible solution(s), construct prototypes and/or models, test and evaluate, communicate the solutions, and redesign.

1.2 Understand that the engineering design process is used in the solution of problems and the advancement of society. Identify examples of technologies, objects, and processes that have been modified to advance society, and explain why and how they were modified.

1.1 Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process: identify the problem, research the problem, develop possible solutions, select the best possible solution(s), construct prototypes and/or models, test and evaluate, communicate the solutions, and redesign.

1.2 Understand that the engineering design process is used in the solution of problems and the advancement of society. Identify examples of technologies, objects, and processes that have been modified to advance society, and explain why and how they were modified.

**Massachusetts DESE Learning Standards**

**Technology and Engineering Grades 6-8**

**Technology and Engineering High School**

Students will be able to...

• Identify the criteria and constraints of a successful solution

• Discuss various solutions to a design problem

• Sequence the steps of the engineering design process in a simplified format and recognize what each step is asking (What is the problem/need? What information do I need to find out? What are a few ways to solve the problem?)

• Describe how drafting techniques and production of visuals and 3D models can aid in the construction of prototypes

Students will be able to...

• Identify the criteria and constraints of a successful solution

• Discuss various solutions to a design problem

• Sequence the steps of the engineering design process in a simplified format and recognize what each step is asking (What is the problem/need? What information do I need to find out? What are a few ways to solve the problem?)

• Describe how drafting techniques and production of visuals and 3D models can aid in the construction of prototypes

**Learning Objectives**

A ramp wrapped around the outside of the pyramid like a spiral staircase, which would be built as the construction progressed. Unfortunately, such a ramp would interfere with the sight lines of the pyramid, making it difficult to monitor the project. In addition, turning the blocks around corners would have been extremely dangerous.

History's Best Ideas

Instruments similar to wooden cranes used to

hoist stone blocks up the side of the pyramid.

With the slopes of the Khufu Pyramid exceeding 51°,

how would it be possible to hoist blocks weighing

up to 60 tonnes in such conditions?

One or more ramps built up against the sides of the

pyramid would have made it possible to transport the blocks during construction. A simple idea, but in order to reach the summit, the volume of such a construction would have been double that of the pyramid itself,

which seems extremely unlikely.

4a. Why did Jean-Pierre use 3D modeling and simulation software?

4b. Did your team make any changes or additions to your design during the construction process? Why?

3D modeling and simulation software allowed prototypes to be built to scale, tested under the scientific laws of physics, and rebuilt without lifting a single stone.

For nearly two years, a multi-disciplinary team of around fifteen people (including engineers, designers and developers) supported Jean-Pierre in modeling and simulating various construction processes. The virtual pyramid was built and stored in computers, with all of its geometric (e.g. shape and dimensions) and physical (e.g. material density, elasticity, resistance) characteristics.

Homework

When Jean-Pierre Houdin began to tackle the “mystery” of the Khufu Pyramid, he needed to consider the Egyptian builders' engineering criteria and constraints.

How tall do you think Khufu’s pyramid is?

Draw a comparison object next to the pyramid provided.

How heavy is a 60 ton block?

Draw a comparison object that you think weighs 60 tons

Criteria: Construction of a 146 meter high monument

Constraint: Technology to move 60 ton granite stones

=

?

=

60 tons is equivalent to a family of 6 elephants

1. What were your team's criteria and constraints for building the pyramids yesterday?

Criteria:

Constraints:

2a. What were the three possible theories that Jean Pierre found?

2b. What are the benefits of researching and brainstorming possible solutions?

3a. Which solution(s) did Jean-Pierre select?

3b. What were some design elements that worked well in class yesterday?

Given the size and scale of the pyramid, the prospect of building a to test Jean-Pierre's theory presented a serious challenge.

After many iterations, Jean-Pierre's theory met virtually all the criteria and constraints and was ready to be shared with the world.

Wooden cranes/

Huge ramp on the outside /

Spiral ramp wrapped around the pyramid /

In Jean-Pierre's theory, the Egyptians used a large

external ramp to build the burial chamber and bottom half of the pyramid...

...while also building an internal spiral ramp that allowed workers and materials to travel within the pyramid.

After the burial chamber was complete, the external ramp stones would be disassembled...

...and carried up an internal ramp to be used for the top half of the pyramid.

- Wooden Cranes

- External Ramp

- Spiral Ramp

146 meters = 480 feet

Wooden Cranes rotated blocks at each corner.

Internal Ramp

External Ramp

Wooden Cranes

Burial Chamber

Completed Pyramid

Check out Jean-Pierre's theory in 3D by logging on to the Khufu Reborn 3D Experience.

Explore the Giza plateau

Discover hidden clues

Learn the story

Brought to you by Dassault Systemes

http://www.3ds.com/company/passion-for-innovation/the-projects/khufu-reborn/khufu-reborn/

Passion for Innovation

5. Why do you think it is important to communicate your solution?

prototype