Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

African American Heritage

No description
by

Meghan Collins

on 18 February 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of African American Heritage

African-American Heritage African American Heritage Bio-cultural Ecology "I am America. I am the part you won't recognize. But get used to me. Black, confident, cocky; my name, not yours; my religion, not yours; my goals, my own; get used to me."
-Muhammad Ali •Second largest minority population in the United States.
•African Americans have been identified in many ways including “negro” “colored” “black” and “people of color.”
•The African American Heritage grew in the United States between 1619 and 1860 when they were brought here against their will as slaves.
• After slavery ended they faced poverty and many hard ships because they were denied their civil rights.
•Prior to 1954 African Americans educational opportunities were threatened, having to attend public schools that were segregated into blacks and whites. Overview and Heritage Communication -They need to fit into the mainstream to fit in at work
-Ethnic or racial tension can come about at the workplace if people are prejudice towards background or skin color
-"The Black Experience" is different from that of other immigrants because of slavery and how their skin color dehumanized them
-Major Problems:
Employment process biases, channeling into "minority" positions, promotion and advancement difficulties, and emotional and psychological maltreatment Workforce Issues Skin Color and Other Biological Variations High Risk Health Behaviors - Smoking is a serious high risk behavior
-African Americans are at increased risk for lung cancer
-Other high risk health behaviors:
HIV/AIDS and other STIs, teenage pregnancy, violence, unintentional injuries,
alcoholism, drug abuse, sedentary lifestyle, and delayed seeking of health care
-Health Care often takes second place to the basic needs of the family
-When health care is needed, they go to the family first before a professional
-This leads to African Americans not seeking treatment at early stages
-Community Health Care workers have to provide education
-Screening programs should be initiated in community events or church activities
when the whole family is present
-A specific Afrocentric teaching module could be used to help with early screening
for breast and cervical cancer Death Rituals Spirituality Health Care Practices -African-Americans believe human nature is to do evil, and not good.
-Very suspicious of health care providers, they only use health services when necessary.
-Illness is viewed as a disruption to the harmony amongst human and nature, therefore African-Americans confide in folk healers and clergy.

-Focus-groups are the most practical way to gain the trust of this culture and will give insight to what is acceptable to health care services. Health Care Practitioner's -Low-literacy rate affects 40% of all African-Americans in which their understanding and processing of information is lacking.
-This can be avoided with better care and less use of medical jargon with patients
-Negative attitudes greatly influence how this culture perceives health care.
-Economic and geographic barriers influence health-care services
-Therapeutic care should be considered before prescribing costly care plans
- African Americans are less supportive of homosexuality than other racial/ethnic groups
Markedly more religious group
Differences in homophobia scores are due to frequency of church attendance, religious commitment, socioeconomic status Alternative Lifestyles Elders, especially grandmothers, are respected for their insight & wisdom
Grandmothers- most central role in AA family
Frequently the economic support
Critical role in child care Respect for Elders Teen pregnancy is a problem for African Americans- risk for obstetric complications and premature infants
Teen mothers assumes primary responsibility
Extended family= strong support system
In some cases, infant may be informally adopted by another mother Teen Pregnancy Children are taught respectfulness, obedience, conformity to parent-defined rules, and good behavior
Firm parenting styles, structure & discipline
In violent communities, mothers encourage productive activities to keep their children off the streets
Adolescents- household chores
Young adults- paying job Family Values Fourty one percent of single-mother African American families are living in poverty
Absence of African American males:
-high unemployment rates
-low life expectancy
-incarceration (6.5 x rate of white men) Single parenting and poverty largely matriarchal families
Single mothers, grandmothers, aunts, etc.
Single head of household accepted without stigma
If a woman is unable, other women readily provide assistance or take responsibility
44 percent of children living with their grandparents are African American Head of Household Subfamilies: neices, nephews, cousins, aunts, uncles
Families with secondary members: peers of the parents, parents of the primary parents
Augmented families: head of household raises children not related to them
Nonblood relatives: individuals unrelated by blood ties but are closely involved with family function
Aka “fictive kin” Role of the Extended Family Gender roles depend on the following
Ethnicity
-Socioeconomic class
-Rural vs. Urban location
-Educational achievement
Dual employment requires cooperative teamwork in the middle-class family
Shared family tasks
-cooking
-cleaning
-child-care
-shopping Gender Roles African Americans are less supportive of homosexuality than other racial/ethnic groups
Markedly more religious group
Differences in homophobia scores are due to frequency of church attendance, religious commitment, socioeconomic status Alternative Lifestyles Subfamilies: neices, nephews, cousins, aunts, uncles
Families with secondary members: peers of the parents, parents of the primary parents
Augmented families: head of household raises children not related to them
Nonblood relatives: individuals unrelated by blood ties but are closely involved with family function
Aka “fictive kin” Role of the Extended Family Elders, especially grandmothers, are respected for their insight & wisdom
Grandmothers- most central role in AA family
Frequently the economic support
Critical role in child care Respect for Elders Teen pregnancy is a problem for African Americans- risk for obstetric complications and premature infants
Teen mothers assumes primary responsibility
Extended family= strong support system
In some cases, infant may be informally adopted by another mother Teen Pregnancy Children are taught respectfulness, obedience, conformity to parent-defined rules, and good behavior
Firm parenting styles, structure & discipline
In violent communities, mothers encourage productive activities to keep their children off the streets
Adolescents- household chores
Young adults- paying job Family Values Gender roles depend on the following
Ethnicity
-Socioeconomic class
-Rural vs. Urban location
-Educational achievement
Dual employment requires cooperative teamwork in the middle-class family
Shared family tasks
-cooking
-cleaning
-child-care
-shopping Gender Roles Fourty one percent of single-mother African American families are living in poverty
Absence of African American males:
-high unemployment rates
-low life expectancy
-incarceration (6.5 x rate of white men) Single parenting and poverty Family Roles largely matriarchal families
Single mothers, grandmothers, aunts, etc.
Single head of household accepted without stigma
If a woman is unable, other women readily provide assistance or take responsibility
44 percent of children living with their grandparents are African American Head of Household -Spirituality is important to African-Americans during times of death.
-A "big send off" is normal to have when the passing of a loved one is occurring. These send offs are expensive and detailed-oriented.
-Ranging from the coffin to the type of car the body is transferred in are extremely important to African-Americans
-Rushing to bury a deceased loved one is not the method this culture heeds.
- 5-7 days are the amount of time allotted before burying the deceased. African Americans are less supportive of homosexuality than other racial/ethnic groups
Markedly more religious group
Differences in homophobia scores are due to frequency of church attendance, religious commitment, socioeconomic status Alternative Lifestyles Subfamilies: neices, nephews, cousins, aunts, uncles
Families with secondary members: peers of the parents, parents of the primary parents
Augmented families: head of household raises children not related to them
Nonblood relatives: individuals unrelated by blood ties but are closely involved with family function
Aka “fictive kin” Role of the Extended Family Elders, especially grandmothers, are respected for their insight & wisdom
Grandmothers- most central role in AA family
Frequently the economic support
Critical role in child care Respect for Elders Teen pregnancy is a problem for African Americans- risk for obstetric complications and premature infants
Teen mothers assumes primary responsibility
Extended family= strong support system
In some cases, infant may be informally adopted by another mother Teen Pregnancy Children are taught respectfulness, obedience, conformity to parent-defined rules, and good behavior
Firm parenting styles, structure & discipline
In violent communities, mothers encourage productive activities to keep their children off the streets
Adolescents- household chores
Young adults- paying job Family Values Gender roles depend on the following
Ethnicity
-Socioeconomic class
-Rural vs. Urban location
-Educational achievement
Dual employment requires cooperative teamwork in the middle-class family
Shared family tasks
-cooking
-cleaning
-child-care
-shopping Gender Roles Fourty one percent of single-mother African American families
are living in poverty
Absence of African American males:
-high unemployment rates
-low life expectancy
-incarceration (6.5 x rate of white men) Single parenting and poverty largely matriarchal families
Single mothers, grandmothers, aunts, etc.
Single head of household accepted without stigma
If a woman is unable, other women readily provide assistance or take responsibility
44 percent of children living with their grandparents are African American Head of Household Family Roles Death Rituals -African Americans believe in "voodoo death" which is a belief that death comes via a supernatural force
-Voodoo is also known as "hex" or "witchcraft"

-Accepting hospice services to African-Americans implies that they are giving up on God's power to heal.

-Relatives respond to death by "falling out" where they temporarily become paralyzed. Vision and hearing remain intact.

-Ultimately, death does not end a relationship and loved ones will reunite in heaven. Health Care Practitioner's -Interpersonal relationships are imperative, gaining rapport EARLY is the key.
-Afrocentric worldview is a cultural perspective adapted by the African-Americans
-This view embodies the idea that all events are tied together and harmony with nature is key, as mentioned
-As Health Care Practitioner's it is important to understand how African-Americans perceive pain.
-They only use medications prescribed when necessary. Health Care Practitioner's -Blood transfusions and organ donations occur at low levels. -Some African-Americans follow the religious laws of the Jehovah Witness faith which do not accept blood transfusions under any circumstances. - - should a health care provider violate this rule, regardless of ones own moral compass. This is important to note because under no condition
-Research has shown that African-Americans prefer to see a NP because they spend more quality time during care. Most importantly, gaining a sound relationship initially is the key to a successful care plan.
-Same sex gender is preferred with patients of this culture. -They can experience the "glass ceiling" effect
-Obama lets African Americans have hope that the "American Dream" is within reach for them
-Health Care Providers have to increase their awareness of this issue
-Some African American men find it hard to take orders from their European American bosses
-Supervisors can lack cultural sensitivity
-Some African Americans only speak AAE which can be seen as poorly educated or unintelligent. Workforce Issues Nutrition Dietary Practices for Health Promotion Nutritional Deficiencies and Food Limitations Infant Feeding Common Food and Food Rituals High and Low Blood Eating foods identified with slavery has provided a sense of identity and tradition
A southern tradition is 'soul food' which comes from the need to express a feeling of soul
It is meant to nourish not only the mind but also the spirit on special occasions
Everyday diet of African Americans closely resemble the "American" diet based on convenience and cost Southern foods include:
Okra
Hocks
Pork fat
Sweet potato pie
Corn bread
Biscuits
Mustard and collard greens Common ways to prepare food include frying, BBQ, and using gravy and sauces
Diets are typically high in fat, cholesterol, and sodium
Compared to the rest of American society African Americans eat more animal fat, less fiber, and fewer fruit and vegetables Parents may be encouraged by their elders to begin feeding solid foods, like cereal, at early age (before 2 months)
the cereal is mixed with formula and given to the infant in a bottle
African Americans believe that giving only formula is starving the baby
cultural-specific interventions are needed to educate African American parents regarding the harmful effects of giving infants solid foods at an early age Some believe that a health person is one who has a good appetite
Individuals who are at ideal body weight are viewed as "not having enough meat on their bones" and therefor unhealthy
Some believe that it's important to carry additional weight in order to be able to loose weight during times of sickness
therefore being slightly overweight is seen as a sign of good health High blood is believed to be a condition in which the blood expands or moves higher in the body usually the head, interchangeable with high blood pressure
some believe that rich foods or food red in color are causes
treatment is believed to be drinking vinegar or eating pickles to "thin" the blood Low blood is believed to be the cause of anemia
treatment is aimed at trying to thicken the blood by eating rich foods and red meats or drinking "pot liquor", the liquid that remains after a pot of greens has been cooked Calcium consumption in African American women is low
Might be due to the fact that lactose intolerance occurs in 75% of the African American population Low levels of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamins A and C and iron are mostly associated with a poor diet
a specific number of American Americans are members of religious groups such as Seventh-Day Adventists, Muslims, and Jehovah's Witnesses and therefor have dietary restrictions
A Muslim halal diet forbids pork and therefor pork-based insulin
Rastafarian's mandate they eat fresh foods of vegetable origin and avoid meat, salt and alcohol The health-care provider must always ask about any religious or cultural prohibitions on types of food consumed Pregnancy and Childbearing Practices Cravings During Pregnancy Postpartum Period Pregnancy Beliefs About Labor When families moved from rural areas to the cities they shifted from large to smaller family sizes
Oral contraceptives are the most popular choice of birth control among African Americans
Religious beliefs play a role in choices made
African American Catholics may choose the rhythm method over other forms of birth control African American women usually respond to pregnancy in the same manner as women in other ethnic groups
Elders in the family provide advice and counseling about what should and shouldn't be done during pregnancy
The family network guides practices and beliefs of the pregnant women including pica
This is eating of non-nutritive substances which supposedly reduce nausea and cause an easy birth
This could include eating clay, dirt, sand, plastic ect. Taboo Practices Some African Americans believe pregnant women shouldn't take pictures because it may cause a stillbirth, nor should they have their picture taken because it captures their soul
Some believe that its not wise to reach over their heads if they are pregnant because the umbilical cord will wrap around the baby's neck Several beliefs related to the failure to satisfy food cravings exist
some claim that if the mother doesn't satisfy cravings the child can be birth marked, or stillbirth Caribbean food beliefs during pregnancy focus on pregnancy outcomes and eating specific food groups
milk, eggs, tomatoes, and green vegetables is believed to result in a large baby, whereas drinking to many liquids will drown the baby Driving on a bumpy road, ingesting castor oil, eating a heavy meal, or sniffing pepper are all thought to induce labor
If a baby is born with the amniotic sac over its head or face, the neonate is thought to have special powers
certain children are though to have special powers from God; those born after a set of twins, those with a physical problem, or a child who is the seventh son in a family The postpartum period of the African American woman can be greatly extended
some believe that during this period the mother is at a greater risk than the baby
shes cautioned to avoid cold air and is encouraged to get adequate rest to restore the body to normal
postpartum practices for child care can involve the use of a belly band or a coin
when placed on top of the infants umbilical area, these objects are believed to prevent the umbilical area from protruding outward - Pallor in dark skinned African Americans can be noticed by the lack of underlying red tones that give them their “glow”
-Natural light should be used to assess skin
-Try not to wear gloves because it can change feeling to skin temp
-For cyanosis check the oral mucosa and conjunctiva
-For jaundice check sclera of eyes, palms, and soles of feet which can be yellow
-Ask to point out areas of normal skin color and temperature to compare to
-They’re at risk for developing more severe pressure ulcers-post inflammatory hyperpigmentation is a major skin disorder found in African Americans (the darkening of skin after resolution of skin trauma, lesions of a dermatosis or as a result of treatments administered for skin disorder) Bio-cultural Ecology - “Razor bumps” are common among African American males
-Melasma (“the mask of pregnancy”) and alopecia (hair loss) are common in African American women
-Vertiligo (white patches) is common in African americans (associated with diabetes and thyroid disorders)
- Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer for African americans
-Basal cell carcinoma is more aggressive in African americans than whites
-Survival rate for melanoma is 77% for African americans and 91% for whites
-Health care providers need to get rid of the myth that African americans aren’t at risk for skin cancer Bio-cultural Ecology Diseases and Health Conditions -Leading causes of death:
heart disease, cancer, strokes, unintentional injuries diabetes mellitus, homicide, nephritis, HIV, and chronic lower respiratory diseases
-Life expectancy is shorter in African Americans than European Americans
- Hypertension in African Americans is more severe and more resistant to treatment
- They experience higher rates of diabetes
-More complications that arise from their diabetes:
higher occurrence of lower limb amputations, end stage renal disease, eye disease, and higher rates of hospitalization for diabetes when compared with whites Bio-cultural Ecology Diseases and Health Conditions -15% more likely to suffer from obesity than whites
-African Americans have the highest death rate and shortest survival rate when it comes to cancer
-Even though breast cancer is more common in white women, African American woman have a 32% higher mortality rate
-They turn to God and family when they are trying to get through this cancer
-African American women have the highest rate of infant mortality among all ethnic groups.
-Asthma is the top health problem for African American children.
-Sickle cell disease is the most common genetic disorder.
- Urethral prolapse is common in African American girls, leading to vaginal bleeding.
-Experience the highest rate of STDS than any other race in the United States •African Americans are primarily baptist.
•Strongly believe in the use of prayer.
•Believe in the laying on of hands when praying.
•Perform a specific type of prayer called “speaking in tongues.”
•Believe that everything that happen is “Gods Will” and that sickness and pain are forms of weakness that are wished upon them by Satan.
•Church community is considered is a major support
system. Bio-cultural Ecology Variations in Drug Metabolism -Show a higher blood levels and faster therapeutic response when taking tricyclic antidepressants and other psychotropic medications.
-Immunosuppressants have been shown to have a bio availability of 20 and 50 percent lower in African Americans than non-African Americans.
-Face trouble with anti hypertensive medications.
-Antiretroviral drugs are shown to be less effective in African Americans.
-Have been shown to receive unequal treatment, misdiagnosis, and over medication due to their race.
-Have limited access to pain medication due to a lack of supply in pharmacy’s.
- Depending on the response to drugs, pupil size may vary in relation to color.
-Malnutrition has a major influence on drug absorption. some African Americans use a language sociologists refer to as African American English or AAE
usually members of working class, rap or hip hop, and/or street culture
AAE speakers face prejudice as they are misinterpreted for being uneducated African American English most people believe that AAE is inferior to Standard American English
common for educated individuals who are articulate in SAE to use AAE when conversing with one another
aka "dialect shifting" Cultural Communication Patterns the volume of African American's voices is often louder than individuals of other cultures
Health care providers must not mistake the increase in tone for anger
speech is very dynamic and expressive, and much more interactive than that of European Americans
body movements very important
facial expressions very demonstrative
use of humor to release anger and reduce stress or racial tension
understanding the function that humor has in African American culture assists health care providers in formulating culturally-responsive health care responses
most African Americans mistrust health care providers and will not disclose personal information Time Management some African Americans are very relaxed about time and are not prompt for appointments
attending the appointment is more important than arriving on time
important to create flexibility in appointment times
Full transcript