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Transcript of Farming
Natural System Interaction
Types of Farming
Issues Facing Canadian Farmers
The Changing Farm Importance of Agriculture in Canada Agriculture contributes 1.4% to Canada’s GDP.
20% of jobs are agriculture related.
Agriculture is important in Canada’s trade.
Canada has a large surplus in agricultural trade; mostly exported grains & vegetable oil products.
The average Canadian spends 11% of their income on food. The Changing Farm About 82% of Canadians lived in rural areas.
Agriculture was the industry that most people worked in.
Farmers could only manage small farms. 1867: Present: Farms have increased in size and decreased in numbers.
Only 20% of Canada’s population currently live in rural areas.
And only 3% of Canada’s labour force are farmers. This change is the result of mechanization, where machinery has become more efficient and taken over the work of humans and animals. is the process whereby machinery takes over the work of humans or animals. Mechanization: Land Capability Is Land a Renewable or Non-Renewable Resource? Land can be a renewable resource only if the land is properly used. If land is subject to sustainable agriculture, then yes, land is a renewable resource. If it is properly used, it can support new crops year after year. Land can also be a non-renewable resource, as there is a limited amount of land that is suitable for farming. Also, land can be seriously damaged as a result of bad farming practices, or if land is paved over to build a town or roads. The land would no longer be able to be used for agriculture. ability of land to be used for a certain purpose. For example, land capability for agriculture is based on soil quality, drainage, slope, and climate. Land capability: In the 1960’s and 1970’s: the federal and provincial governments surveyed parts of Canada.
The CLI, has determined the Canadian land suitability.
This class systems helps land-use planning.
7 classes of land capability have been determined. Canada Land Inventory (CLI) In total, only 13% of Canada is suitable for agriculture. This includes classes 1-6.
Not all of the 13% of suitable land is excellent or good farmland.
Canada’s amount of agricultural land is relatively small, and is mostly threatened by urban growth. What might have changed from 1867 to present day? This decrease in the amount of farms in Canada is quite significant. In 1930s, one out of every three Canadians lived on or had a farm. In comparison, how many people in this class live on a farm? Correcting Deficiencies Types of Farming Issues Facing Canadian Farmers Mechanization has had a positive effect on farming advancement:
Today, the average farm in Canada produces enough food that could feed 120 people each day.
Back in our grandparents' or great-grandparents' day, farms produced enough food for 10 people each day.
Farming has become more efficient. Turn to page 297 in your textbook. (Fig. 24-6) https://jeopardylabs.com/play/farming19 Intensive Farming -Intensive farming is when its a populated, small area but need lots of labor
-Mostly fruits, vegetables, dairy, poultry, and hogs
-Quickly processed and perishable Extensive Farming -Extensive farming has low population, inexpensive land
-It has a bigger profit, highly mechanized, few workers, and commonly found in prairies
-Mostly cattle, ranching, oilseed and grains, and mixed farming
-Less perishable since away from major markets -Many different farms in Canada based on size, and products
-Types of farms are determined by soil fertility, precipitation, growing season
-Economic factors are the cost or value, proximity to market, competition Types of Farming Wheat -Wheat from Saskatchewan, Alberta and Manitoba are a large, highly specialized and mechanized
-Ontario farms are also mechanized but much smaller
-The cool wet springs, and dry hot summers produce a high-quality of wheat for bread, pasta,etc Beef, Cattle and Grain Livestock and Dairy -In the dry grass areas of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and British Columbia, large ranches raise most of Canada's beef
-Large ranches are needed in too dry, to hilly for grain to grow
-Ontario and Quebec farmers raise cattle or small farms for local markets -Dairy is very perishable and must be shipped quickly
-The majority of farms are located in Ontario and Quebec close to populated areas
-Usually located far from populated area
-Many farmers grow their own hay and grains for feed for the winter Fruits and Vegetables -Gardening involves growing perishable food to local people
-Since land near urban areas are expensive, high yields per hectare are required
-Tender fruits (peaches, sweet cherries, apricots, and grapes) are grown in the Annapolis Valley or Nova Scotia, fruit belt of Ontario and the valley of British Columbia.
-Highly perishable fruit must be processed or sold quickly Loss of Farmland Decline of the Family Farm and the Growth of Agribusiness Sustainable Agriculture Organic Farming BSE (Mad Cow Disease) Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Few places in the world have the perfect combination of conditions for farming.
A perfect combination of conditions for farming include a long growing season, just the right amount of moisture, rich soils, level land, and just the right mix of biological conditions. Unfortunately, many areas suffer from one or more deficiencies.
People have found ways to overcome the the deficiencies of the land that they farm. For each deficiency, adjustments have been made to overcome it. Turn to page 295 in your textbook. (Fig. 24-4) Conclusion Agriculture is very important to Canada
Farming depends on natural system interaction: climate, soil, biology, and topography
Land is not always suitable for farming; only a small portion of Canada is suitable for agriculture
There are several ways for farmers to overcome farming limitations There are two types of farming: intensive and extensive, that depend on natural and economic factors
There are several issues facing farming: Loss of Farmland, Decline of Family Farm & Growth of Agribusiness, Sustainable Agriculture, Organic Farming, BSE and GMOs.
Canadian farming is changing as a result of mechanization: decline in farms, increase in size These cities are expanding and are becoming a threat for the valuable farmland. Most of Canada’s best farmland is located next to our largest cities (For example, Toronto). There has been a decline on the amount of traditional family farms in Canada.
Agribusiness, on much larger farmers, is increasing.
The problem with agribusiness is that the workers are given cheap pay for their labour. agricultural business. Operations include growing, storing, processing, and distributing food, and may be owned by a large corporation, a family, or an individual. Agribusiness: Sustainable agriculture is an approach to agricultural production that can be maintained indefinitely without harming the environment.
Many other agricultural practices can damage the soil and other parts of the natural environment. As a result, there has been a decline in agricultural productivity.
Sustainable agriculture is a farming practice that should be used and encouraged by all farmers. Organic Farming: Production of crops and animals without the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, radiation or GMOs. Sales of organic crops and animals are increasing very fast. The problems with organic farming are that farmers have to charge more for their organic products and their products tend to be smaller. BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) forms holes in the brains of the infected animals, which cripples and eventually kills the animal.
If humans eat meat that is contaminated with BSE, then they can get the human form of the disease
This impacts human health, and the farmer will lose money as a result of having to destroy their cows. GMOs are organisms whose genetic structure has been changed by scientists to create a characteristic that is seen as desirable. A genetically modified plant is resistant to the effects of herbicide, resistant to a killing frost, resistant to pests and will have added nutrition. Problems with genetically modified foods are that they act as environmental hazards, and they are harmful to human health.