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Nanotechnology for curing cancer

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by

Temirlan Aitbekov

on 22 November 2013

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Transcript of Nanotechnology for curing cancer

Cancer -
uncontrollable division and growth of cells which form malignant tumors

Disease detection:
Nanosensors
What is nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology
is the manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular scale to create materials with new and advanced properties.
Outline:
Nanotechnology for cancer treatment
Background information
-Cancer
-Conventional methods
-Nanotechnology methods
Advantages
Disadvantages
Conclusion/recommendations

Causes:

Internal factors:
Genetic predisposition
External factors:
Carcinogens
Infection
Radiation
Aim
To prove that nanotechnology has a great potential for cancer treatment and can be more effective in comparison with traditional methods
Cancer
Ibuprofen:
Abdukassimova Meruyert
Abilev Alibek
Aidanov Azamat
Aitbekov Temirlan

November 22, 2013
Conventional methods
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Hyperthermia
Surgery
High-energy radiation:
X-rays, Gamma rays and Charged Particles
shrink tumors and kill cancer cells.

Delivered by a machine
outside
the body
OR
From radioactive material placed

in
the body near cancer cells

Radiation therapy can damage normal cells, leading to
side effects
Chemotherapy uses drugs that reach
all parts

of the body:

Cancer cells + Normal cells


Body is exposed to
high temperatures
(up to 113°F) to damage and kill cancer cells.

However, organs located
next to the tumor
can be damaged as well.

Hyperthermia may result in side effects, such as
burns, blisters, diarrhea, nausea, cardiac and vascular disorders.
Advantages of nanomedicine in comparison with traditional methods:
Disadvantages:
To conclude:
Nanotechnology
is a
promising
method for cancer treatment which is believed to
replace traditional methods
in the nearest future
Traditional methods
such as Radiotherapy,chemotherapy, hyperthermia and surgery have considerable
disadvantages
in cancer treatment

Cancer rate
mortality
is
increasing
References:
Misra Ranjita, and Sarbari Acharya, and Sanjeeb K. Sahoo. 2010. “Cancer nanotechnology: application of nanotechnology in cancer therapy.” Drug Discovery Today 15 (19-20): 842-48.
"Cancer." TheFreeDictionary.com. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Cancer (accessed November 18, 2013).
"Cancer." WHO. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/ (accessed November 18, 2013).
Weinberg, Robert A.. The biology of cancer. New York: Garland Science, 2007.
Om, Pal Singh, and R.M. Nehru. "Nanotechnology and Cancer Treatment." Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences 22, no. 2 (2008): 45-50.
"National Cancer Institute." Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment -. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Therapy/hyperthermia (accessed November 21, 2013).
"Life After Cancer." Terminal Times. http://www.terminaltimes.net/2011_09_01_archive.html (accessed November 21, 2013).
"Mesothelioma Chemotherapy." Mesothelioma Cancer Alliance. http://www.mesothelioma.com/treatment/conventional/chemotherapy/ (accessed November 21, 2013).
Nanotechnology
has a great
potential
in other areas of medicine
Composed of
lipid monolayer
Able to transfer only
hydrophobic
agents inside
Liposomes
Composed of
lipid bilayers
, which enable liposome
to pass
through cell membrane and deliver the drug
Able to transfer only
hydrophilic
agents inside
Nano Cantilevers
Nanoparticles
Drug delivery:
Nanovectors
Polymeric micelles
Carbon Nanotubes
Used widely nowadays and are believed to be effective
http://www.terminaltimes.net/2011_09_01_archive.html
Myelosuppression
-
decreased production of white blood cells
M
ucositis
- inflammation of the lining of the digestive track
A
lopecia
-
hair loss
Tumor biomarker proteins bind to
antibodies
located on a cantilever. This causes cantilever
to bend
and presence of cancer can be detected
Tubes which have ability to absorb
infrared radiation
is a leading cause of death.
7.6 billion
people have died because of cancer in 2008. The number of cancer cases may increase by
75%
in 2030. (WHO, 2013)
Cancer
Operation
to
repair
or
remove
part of the human body to
diagnose
or
treat
cancer
External factors
90-95%
of cases are due to the environmental factors, such as:
Tobacco smoking
Carcinogenic food
Infections
Radiation
Nanomedicine
is the medical application of nanotechnology to identify and treat particular diseases.
Internal factors
5-10%
of cases are due to genetics
Genetically
not

inherited
Genes responsible for cell
growth
and
division
are altered
Genetically
inherited
Nanoparticle
is a small object that can vary according to its
function
:
Nanovectors
Nanosensors
Quantum dots
Early diagnostics
They are
fluorescent nanocrystals
that glow under
ultraviolet light.
When targeting specific cancer cells, the tumor can be detected according to the
light
emitted by dots.
Nanosensors
identify cancer at
early
stages --> >
Prevention
of tumor formation
>
Easy
to treat
Targeted delivery
No surgery required
Nanotools are
swallowed
or
injected
Healthy tissues
not damaged
No rehabilitation
required as in surgery
No disadvantages for health
High cost
Manufacturing is
difficult
Few medical trials
Requires more in-depth studies
Traditional methods
identify cancer at
late
stages -->
Hard

to treat
BUT
Traditional methods

harm healthy cells
BUT
Nanovectors
deliver medication
directly

to the tumor ->
No damage
for healthy cells
The
bigger
amount of
cancer cells
-> the
smaller
chance of patient to
survive
after the surgery
Surgery removes the tumor, does not remove
the cause
Inserted around
cancerous cells
Excited with
infrared radiation
Nanotubes
heat up
and
kill
the surrounding cells
Thank you for attention!
Questions???
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