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Cyrace Anne Laude

on 1 October 2014

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I. Examine The Instructional Objectives Of The Topics Previously Discussed
The first step in developing an achievement test is to examine and go back to the instructional objectives so that you can match with the test items to be constructed.
II. Make a Table of Specification (TOS)

Table of Specification (TOS) is a chart or table that details the content and level of cognitive level assessed on a test as well as the types and emphases of test items (Gareis and Garant, 2008). Table of Specification is very important in addressing the validity and reliability of the test items.
III. Construct the Test Items
A. General Guidelines for Constructing Test Items

1. Begin writing items far enough or in advance so that you will have time to revise them.

2. Match items to intended outcomes at appropriate level of difficulty to provide valid measure of instructional objectives.

3. Be sure each item deals with an important aspect of the content area and not with trivia.

4. Be sure the problem posed is clear and unambiguous.

5. Be sure that the item is independent with all other items.
IV. Assemble the Test Items
There are two steps in assembling the test: (1) packaging the test; and (2) reproducing the test.

In assembling the test, consider the following guidelines:

a. Group all items with similar format.
b. Arrange test items from easy to difficult.
c. Space the test items for easy reading .
d. Keep items and option in the same page.
e. Place the illustrations near the description.
f. Check the answer key.
g. Decide where to record the answer.
V. Write Directions
Check the test directions for each item format to be sure that it is clear for the students to understand. The test direction should contain the number of items to which they apply; how to record their answers; the basis of which they select the answer; and the criteria for scoring or the scoring system.
VI. Check the Assembled Test Items

Before reproducing the test, it is very important to proofread first the test items for typographical and grammatical errors and make necessary corrections if any.

VII. Make the Answer Key

Be sure to check your answer key so that the correct answers follow a fairly random sequence. Avoid answers such as TFTFTF, etc., or TTTFFF for a true or false type, and ABCDABCD patterns for multiple-choice type.
VIII. Analyze and Improve the Test Items
Analyzing and improving the test items should be done after checking, scoring and recording the test.
A. Preparing a Table of Specification
Consider these steps in making a two-way chart table of specification:
a. Selecting the learning outcomes to be measured. Identify the necessary instructional objectives needed to answer the test items correctly. The lists of the instructional objectives will include the learning outcomes in the areas of knowledge, intellectual skills or abilities, general skills, attitudes, interest, and appreciation.

b. Make an outline of the subject matter to be covered in the test. The length of the test will depend on the areas covered in its content and the time needed to answer.

c. Decide on the number of items per subtopic. Use this formula to determine the number of items to be constructed for each subtopic covered in the test so that the number of item in each topic should be proportioned to the number of class sessions.

d. Make the two-way chart.

e. Construct the test items. A classroom teacher should follow the general principle of constructing the test items. The test item should always correspond with the learning outcome so that it serves whatever purpose it may have.

B. Different Formats of Table of Specification

Gronlund (1990) lists several examples and format on how a table of specification should be prepared.
a. Format 1 of Table of Specification
Example on how to compute the number of items in each topic.

Number of item for the topic: Synthetic division
Number of class session discussing the topic: 3
Desired number of items: 10
Total number of class sessions for the unit: 10

number of items = number of class sessions x desired total number of items
total number of class session

number of items= 3x10

number of items= 30

number of items for the topic synthetic division= 3
b. Format 2 of Table of Specification (one-way table of specification)
c. Format 3 of Table of Specification (two-way table of specification)
6. Be sure the item has one or best answer on which experts would agree.

7.Prevent unintended clues to an answer in the statement or question.

8.Avoid replication of the textbook in writing test items, do not quote directly from the textual materials.

9. Avoid trick or catch questions in an achievement test.

10. Try to write items that require higher-order thinking skills.

B. Determining the Number of Test Items

Consider the following average time in constructing the number of test items. The length of time and the type of item used are also factors to be considered in determining the number of items to be constructed in an achievement test.
C. Checklist for Constructing Test Items
number of items = number of class sessions x desired total number of items
total number of class session
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