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COM10003 Learning Theories Presentation

Developed by Team 4 (Alana, Bridgit, Elaine and Geoff)
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on 13 September 2015

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Transcript of COM10003 Learning Theories Presentation

Learning Theories
BEHAVIOURISM
Behaviourism is a school of thought that behaviours are taught by environmental and social stimulus. No matter how complex the task can be taught through operant conditioning, i.e. a behaviour is taught through association and consequence (McLeod, 2013). Therefore, learning can be controlled or changed through reinforcement of a stimulus, for example praise or reprimand.



HUMANISM
Humanism can be described as the process of learning to enable self realisation. Subject selection is made by the learner, the premise is that this provides motivation. The theory attempts to develop a desire for learning that is self motivated. Satisfaction in the successfully development of knowledge replaces the need for grades. The way the learning makes a person feel is an important part of the humanistic approach (Salazar, 2013).
COGNITIVISM
"As opposed to behaviourists, cognitivists do not require an outward exhibition of learning, but focus more on the internal processes and connections that take place during learning." (Rhalmi, 2011).

Cognitivism is the complete opposite of the stereotypical view of students going to school purely to listen to teachers talk. They are expected to engage actively in debates and discussions.
CONSTRUCTIVISM
Constructivism is a knowledgeable theory that debates and discusses the idea on how humans further develop knowledge between interactions and experiences. The constructivism theory is known as the procedure in which the learner or student is extending upon current knowledge by drawing from personal experience or interpretation.

http://mennta.hi.is/starfsfolk/solrunb/construc.htm

DESIGN BASED LEARNING
Designing a product for the purpose of learning, promoting problem solving, pedagogy, reflection and interaction. Design based learning is not only about the result, but the process involved. Learning through creating a product or plan it can be applied to an array of curriculum and learning.

"It becomes design research in the sense that it explores possibly ways in which educational objectives can be formulated and carried out in the light of cultural values in the broad." (Bruner, 1991).
Conclusion
Assumptions and Implications
Humanist Theory is Best For
Humanism is best for students that may have a low social standing in the world. "The poor, minority-group pupil has dramatized the lesson that no teaching procedure can be effective if the content is of little interest to the class." (Weinstein, Fantini, & Meade Jr., 1970).

The drive to learn must, therefore, come from the student in this case, not the teacher.
History of Humanism
Humanistic Psychology, known as humanism, was developed throughout the 1950's as a response to the behaviourism theories and psychoanalytic theories that were present at this time. During the 1950's, humanists believed that psychoanalysis and behaviourism theories were extremely pessimistic. Instead, humanistic psychology maintained focus on all individuals' skills and potential.

http://psychology.about.com/od/historyofpsychology/a/hist_humanistic.htm
History of Cognitivism
The cognitivist learning theory gained credibility in the 1950s. Educational psychologist Jean Piaget focused on learning as constructed by the learner's internal processes, rather than perceptible behaviours. Cognition occurs throughout biological maturation from infancy to adolescent and as the learner is adapting to and constructing their environmental experiences
(McLeod, 2009).



History of Behaviourism
Behaviourism developed rapidly throughout the 20th Century, but can be traced all the way back to Ancient Greece. Over the years the fundamentals of behaviourism have changed but the principles remain the same. Pavlov, Watson and Skinner all made modifications to the behaviourism stance over the 20th Century.

The variety of positions that constitute behaviourism might even be said to share no common distinctive property, but only "a loose family resemblance" (Zuriff, G. E. 1985).
Cognitivism Theory is Best For
Cognitivism can be used throughout all learning areas, it is also versatile to the environment and individual learners. Cognitivism works best when facilitators get learners to think about their learning, teaching learners to learn. Early years and primary students respond well to this teaching method as interactive learning grasps their attention.

"General cognitive strategies are strategies that can be applied across many different disciplines and situations." (Chinn & Chinn, 2009).
Advantages and Disadvantages
Constructivism is different from traditional teaching methods; this means it can foster learning for a wider range of students. Constructivism has been proven to be extremely beneficial to students that have learning difficulties or special needs. The biggest disadvantage with constructivism is the lack of structure, for students who thrive on a structured environment this could be a down fall in their learning outcomes.

"Some students have brilliant minds, but simply can't be reached through traditional methods." (Linda M, 2012).
Assumptions and Implications
Human learning theory enhances rather than detracts from academic learning , intellectual growth, and development of basic skills. The assumption can be made that humanism can take away from other styles of learning, but in fact it can support and make meaningful humanised connection that relates to individuals. Implications are that facilitators may foster learning in other ways and over looks human connections.

"Students learn more and learn more deeply when there is meaningful connection to what is to be learned. Good education is good human education." (Johnson, 2014).
History of Design Based Learning
Design Based Learning Best for
History of Constructivism
The concept of constructivism has roots in Socrates' conversations with his followers and pupils. His methods of teaching his followers including asking "directed questions that led his students to realise for themselves the weaknesses in their thinking." (Educational Broadcasting Corporation, 2004). The dialogue Socrates used is still being used and is an important tool in the way educators assess learning of students.

Cognitivism enhances learning processes by creating a path leading from simple to complex learnings. This stepping stone approach is logical to most people and therefore easily accepted.

The need for constant review of the learner’s progress, through the steps, can be a disadvantage. The result of missing or becoming stuck on a step can be failure (Ertmer & Newby, 2013).


It is assumed that learning is unable to take place without the individual being able to see the information subjectively and then analyse how it applies in their environment. Learning requires context both on a social and personal level to be effective. Learning is based around self-efficacy.


Assumptions and Implications
Advantages and Disadvantages
Design Based Learning would be best for students in class rooms as it engages and involves children in the procedures and processes of building, developing, extending upon and evaluating products that have been designed. (silk 2009). This will create a thriving learning environment as it assists children to be confident thinkers, creators and achievers.

EndFragment
https://gse-it.stanford.edu/research/project/dbl

Barab and Squire (2004) believed that the learning process was about being able to vary the design as knowledge was attained and involved the teacher as a co-researcher. These variations of the design enabled comparison of multiple innovations that could then be objectively evaluated by the team. Historically designs or technologies assessed as most likely to succeed were developed and tested first.
The behaviourist theory is used extensively in modern childhood education. The ability to model ones actions on others, reward desirable behaviour whilst causing the extinction of undesirable or out dated behaviours within large groups has great benefits in childhood education programs (Standridge, 2002).
Behaviourist Theory is Best For

Assumptions and Implications

Design based learning has a direct effect on learning as students are required to not only adapt to new ways of learning and thinking to meet rapidly changing global demands but to be part of its development. Wang and Hannafin (2005) discuss technology-enhanced learning environments, as another innovative learning methodology for students and teachers to meet modern-day learning outcomes.

It is assumed that learning is unable to take place without the individual being able to see the information subjectively. Analysis must then be completed on how it applies in their environment. Learning requires context both on a social and personal level to be effective. Learning is based around self-efficacy (Gilakjani et al., 2013).
Assumptions and Implications
The constructivism learning theory gives the student skills to adapt to the changing paradigm of learning. It is a contextualised process of learning rather than acquiring, i.e. transmissionist model of education (Copian Library, 2015). In a collaborative learning environment students adapt skills and knowledge through interaction, experimentation and apply this in ways such as “Designing a Prezi”.

Constructivism Theory is Best For
Introduction
Advantages and Disadvantages
An advantage of design based learning is that it's a hands on approach, focused on the building and making process of learning. A disadvantage of the design based learning theory is that is almost skips over the planning aspect of learning.

"The act expresses concern that 'all students learn to use their minds well,' with the implication being that schools currently pay less attention to building students' range of cognitive abilities than to the subjects of their thought." (Davis, 1998).
Advantages and Disadvantages
Humanism teaching is student centered focusing on the student’s ability to learn. Through an emotional relationship with the teacher the student develops self-concept and self-esteem resulting in confidence for higher learning. (Jingna,2012).

Though by focusing less on the learning material may cause an imbalance of learning if students are at different stages of learning.

Learning theories have dominated teaching practices in history and we have seen education reform from the transmission model of teaching, to students actively constructing their knowledge.

As our world and culture has evolved, for example science and global connectivity, so has the growth of knowledge by learners and expectations of the individual's contribution to society, so not one theory of learning will not relate to everyone.

Learning theories are still relevant as much today in teaching as students learn new skills, as a result of knowledge, experience and interaction with learning and others.

Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. Harper & Row Publishers.

McLeod, S. (2007). Behaviourist Approach. Retrieved August 15, 2015, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html.

McLeod, S. A. (2013). Behaviorist Approach. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html.

Perry, William G. (1999). Forms of Ethical and Intellectual Development in the College Years. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Rhalmi, M. (2011, January 17). Description of Cognitivism. Retrieved August 13, 2015, from My English Pages: http://www.myenglishpages.com/blog/description-of-cognitivism/

Salazar, M. (2013). A Humanizing Pedagogy, Reinventing the Principles and Practice of Education as a Journey Toward Liberation, Review of Research in Education, 37(1), 121-148.

Standridge, M. (2002). Behaviorism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved August 19, 2015, from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/.

Swinburne Online. (2014). COM10003 Citing and referencing [video file]. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/121194584.

Weinstein, G., Fantini, M. D., & Meade Jr., E. J. (1970). Toward Humanistic Education: A Curriculum of Affect. New York: Praeger.

Zuriff, G. E. (1985) Behaviorism: A Conceptual Reconstruction. New York: Columbia University Press.



Reference List Continued
From the earliest age learning plays a significant role in our lives. However an understanding of how we learn is fundamental to adapting to the digital world. The course we take through life can best be navigated by understanding the theory behind learning.

This prezi has been designed to explain and discuss some of the more popular or well-known learning theories. These are behaviourism, constructivism, design-based, humanism and cognitivism. All aspects of these learning theories were examined and researched to provide a thorough understanding and comprehension.

Reference List
Aslefree (2008). Baroque Music for Concentration. Antonio Vivaldi's Concert for Two Flutes, Op. 47, No. 2, Largo, by the Arcangelos Chamber Ensemble.
Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mURZQNpKiLQ_2015913.

Barab, S., & Squire, K. (2004), Design-Based Research: Putting a Stake in the Ground, The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(1), 1–14.

Bruner, J. (1991). The proper study of man, Acts of meaning (pp. 1-32). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Chinn, C. & Chinn, L. (2009) Cognitive Strategies. Education.com http://www.education.com/reference/article/cognitive-strategies.

Davis, M. (1998). Making a Case for Design-Based Learning. Arts Education Policy Review , 100 (2).

Educational Broadcasting Corporation. (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved August 13, 2014, from Concept to Classroom: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub4.html.

Ertmer, P., & Newby, T. (2013). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features From an Instructional Design Perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(2), 43-71. doi: 10.1002/piq.21143.

Freire, P., (1972). Pedagogy of the Oppressed London; Sheed and Ward / Penguin ch.2.

Gilakjani, A., Leong, L., Ismail,H. (2013). Teachers’ Use of Technology and Constructivism, International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, 5(4), 49-63. doi: 10.5815/ijmecs.2013.04.07.

Johnson, A. (2014) Education Psychology: Theories of Learning and Human Development. National Science Press.

Linda, M. (2012) Constructivist learning theory: Pros and Cons. http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/76645-pros-and-cons-of-constructivist-learning-theory/.


Behaviourism, likened to Pavlov's classical conditioning, is "primarily concerned with observable behaviour, as opposed to internal events like thinking." (McLeod, 2007). Because of this, some students and teachers may find it difficult to actually manage the "unconscious mind's influence on the behavior" (McLeod, 2007).


"Despite these criticisms, behaviourism has made significant contributions to psychology. These include insights into learning, language development, and moral and gender development, which have all been explained in terms of conditioning." (McLeod, 2007).


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