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Transcript of Health Disabilities
3 types of diabetes:
Type 1- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes
Type 2- non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes
What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. If left untreated, diabetes can lead to serious complications and premature death. However, there are steps to control the disease and lower the risk of complications
Characteristics of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes, or juvenile diabetes, develops when the body's immune systems destroys pancreatic beta cells- which make insulin that regulates blood glucose. People with type 1 diabetes have insulin delivered via injection or pump. This usually affects children and young adults- but can occur at any age. This accounts for 5-10% of diabetes cases.
Those with type 1 diabetes need insulin through an injection or pump, while those with type 2 diabetes can control their blood glucose with diet and exercise, as well as taking medication.
Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes cases. Type 2 begins as an insulin resistance, in which cells do not use insulin properly. This later leads to the pancreas' loss of ability to produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes affects the obese, people of older age, those with diabetes in their family history, physical inactivity, impaired glucose metabolism, and race/ethnicity. Type 2 can be treated with a healthy diet and exercise.
Gestational diabetes is a glucose intolerance that is diagnosed during pregnancy. If gestational diabetes treatment is not followed through, then there may be complications in the infant.
The school health team of the nurse, teachers, office personnel, and other staff can help a student manage their diabetes during the school day by receiving the proper training, basic understanding of the student's needs, learning to identify a medical emergency, and knowing that student's emergency contact. Teachers should also assist with diabetes management if needed- like administering insulin, checking their blood glucose, or choosing an appropriate snack.
There are written plans for each student's diabetes management. These are:
Diabetes Medical Management Plan- from the student's personal health care professional and family
Quick Reference Emergency Plan- how to recognize hypo/hyperglycemia and what to do
Section 504 Plan or IEP
Care Plan generated by the school nurse that gives instruction to faculty and staff.
What is Asthma?
-Asthma is a chronic disease that affects your airways
- airways become sore, swollen, and sensitive
- may react strongly to allergies or irritants by getting narrower and lungs get less air
-Asthma is genetic, but must be triggered.
- Not all people who have asthma have the same symptoms
- Asthma attack: when symptoms become worse than usual
-can require emergency care
-can be fatal
-quick relief medications to stop symptoms
-long term control medications to prevent symptoms
-Shortness of breath
-Asthma effects over 25 million people in the U.S.
-including 7 million children
Be a good teacher, research based training- receive proper training in handling diabetes-related situations and understand your student's needs
Accommodate- Never pass out food that your student can't have. Also, allow more time for that student if they have had to step out to check their blood sugar, and keep the proper supplies to combat low blood sugar.
Modify the content- Not always necessary, but guidelines for that student should be given by the parent
Collaboration- Become part of the school health team to assist students day by day.
Administrative Support- If there isn't a school health team, contact the administration to start one so everyone can receive the right training.
Universal Design- Help unable students administer insulin if you have received proper training, and/or allow students to step out to take care of their diabetes. Also, if a student is hyperglycemic, make sure they have unrestricted access the bathroom and water fountain.
Self-Reliance- Students will take care of their diabetes by themselves as they get older, but you can give them the privacy they need.
Inclusion- Make sure that any food in class is 'safe' from causing any issues with your diabetic students. Alert the class if needed, they may spot something wrong before you do!
Hypoglycemia is also know as "low blood sugar" and can be taken care of easily and effectively.
Hyperglycemia is "high blood glucose" and is caused by too little insulin, sickness, infections, injury, stress, emotional upset, or ingestion of food that has not been covered by enough insulin. Another cause is decrease in activity
A student may exhibit these if they are hypoglycemic:
Shakiness, inability to concentrate, sweating, clumsy or jerky movements, hunger, tingling sensations around mouth, paleness, sudden moodiness for no reason, headache, dizziness, seizures or convulsions
If a student shows these symptoms, give them a quick acting sugar equivalent to 15g of carbs- like 3 or 4 glucose tablets, 3 teaspoons of glucose gel, 4 ounces of juice, or half of a can of non-diet soda.
If a student with diabetes has increased thirst or is going to the bathroom frequently- make sure they have unrestricted access to the drinking fountain and bathroom!
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and infects approximately 50,000 people a year- according to the CDC. Once you are infected with HIV, you have it your whole life.
Impact on Children/Adolescents
Since HIV suppresses the immune system, they are vulnerable to illnesses and infection- like cancer, pneumonia, and fungal infections. If undiagnosed, the individual could experience fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. In order to prolong the onset of these symptoms, the individual takes retrovirals.
Facts about HIV
HIV is not transmitted through hugging or touching.
AIDS affects people of all ages, races, and socioeconomic status, and individuals with different sexual orientations including heterosexuals, bisexuals, and homosexuals.
There are no reported cases of HIV being transmitted from child to child or child to staff member in a school building due to fights or contact sports.
Teachers need to know the modes of transmission and modes of protection to not only protect themselves, but to protect other students. Teachers can educate themselves by taking courses offered by the Red Cross or other community agencies- or simply contact a medical professional.
75-90% of children with HIV experience developmental delays or cognitive disabilities- especially those who had it transmitted by their mother. Other cognitive disabilities include visual and auditory short-term memory loss, attention deficits, language disorders, spatial ability problems, expressive and receptive language difficulties, and moderate to severe mental retardation.
Due to their physical impairments, loss of abilities, and fear of impending death, children with HIV are more likely to develop anxiety and depression. If a child has contracted HIV through family, they may also have to cope with the loss of family members.
HIV infected children are more likely to experience chronic poverty, housing problems, nutritional problems, poor access to medical and social support services, and exposure to violent or dangerous neighborhood environments. The worst thing of all is dealing with the stigma of HIV- but the ADA has fought against HIV/AIDS discrimination
This part of the ADA applies to the school environment:
A public school system may not prohibit a child with HIV or AIDS from attending.
Also, other children do not have the right to know about a student's HIV status, as well as staff who are not the child's principal, school nurse, teacher, or any other staff responsible for placing that child. This would be a violation of the Illinois Aids Confidentiality Act. An HIV test is not required for a child's attendance in school
If a student's HIV status is known, then the teacher should be an excellent role model by discouraging discrimination and prejudice against the student- simply by knowing your facts and the law!
If ANY student is bleeding, always use universal precautions by using gloves and disinfectant when cleaning up blood or blood-contaminated objects- so always have those handy in your classroom. Also, make sure to thoroughly wash your hands before and after contacting individuals, objects, and/or secretions.
Symptoms include: excessive thirst, urination, hunger, weight loss, fatigue, blurred vision, and high sugar levels. Children with juvenile diabetes will have this their entire life
Adolescents and HIV
Out of the adolescents who have been infected with HIV, 60% have been infected through sexual activity or intravenous drug use. Adolescent males have been infected primarily through homosexual activity, while adolescent females are more likely to contract it through heterosexual activity or intravenous drug use.
Practice Universal Precautions-
All blood should be treated as if it were contaminated by using gloves and disinfectant
Never share instruments
Only the student themselves can reveal their HIV status, not the teacher
Give the student privacy if needed
Want to Include
By practicing Universal Precautions, students with HIV are not segregated from the class
Stand up against HIV discrimination in your classroom and in your school
I. Be a Good Teacher:
- Know your students
-Use research based practice
-In ensembles, allow students breaks to catch their breath and relax.
-Make sure the student has their inhaler with them
-Know how to administer inhaler/treatments
III. Modify Content
-Modify the parts so the students aren't continually playing
Having these symptoms does not always mean that the person has asthma, but they should see a doctor
-School Nurse/Student Doctor
V. Administrative Support
-More time to find accommodations and make modifications
VI. Universal Design
-Allowing for breaks in rehearsal
-As the student ages, responsibility to remember their inhaler and when to take it should gradually be transferred to the student.
-Want to include!
Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease: 1 in 10 children in the U.S. have asthma.
Symptoms can be triggered by:
What is a Seizure?
Seizure: a symptom of something going on in the brain
- In epilepsy, seizures as a result of disturbances in the electrical activity of the brain.
Seizures can be related to brain injury or family tendency but often have an unknown cause.
Types of Seizures
-formerly known as grand mal seizures
-tonic phase: (loss of consciousness) stiffening of the body
-clonic phase: involuntary repeated muscle contractions and relaxations
-Aura: warning signal, individual senses a unique sound, odor, taste, or physical sensation prior to a seizure
- vary greatly from person to person
-can last under 1 minute to over 20 minutes
Types of Seizures
-formerly known as petit mal seizures
- brief periods of inattention (a few seconds to a few minutes)
-rapid eye blinking and/or head twitching common
-brain ceases to function as it normally would
-more common among children than tonic/clonic
-can happen up to 100 times per day
-often mistaken as daydreaming
-treatment and control achieved through medications
-Statistics vary because of stigma
-approx. 200,000 new cases of epilepsy are diagnosed each year
-1/2 of all causes in children are diagnosed before age 10
-large number of adults and children remain undiagnosed/untreated
-no explicit cause can be found in 7 out of 10 cases
-is a permanent and sometimes fatal disorder
- (text book) "Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes signal abnormally...causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of conciousness."
- (video) "Epilepsy is the condition of having spontaneously recurring seizures."
- occur when an individual experiences seizures due to an immediate participating factor or another disorder
- can be a term used include Epilepsy
First Aid for Seizures
-varies greatly from person to person as does the types of seizures
-IMPORTANT to know your student and collaborate with their parents and doctor
General First Aid
-carefully help the student into a safe location/position so chance of injury is minimal
-if convulsion lasts longer than 5 minutes or if need for assistance is uncertain, Call For Help!
General First Aid
- typically require no first aid
- if they occur in a cluster, the individual may be asked to refrain from sports or other activities during the cluster period
I. Be a Good Teacher:
-Know your students!
-Use research based practices
-Create a welcoming classroom environment
-Allow for missed classes or breaks for recovery if seizures occur
V. Administrative Support
-More time! - meet with student outside of class to make up work
VI. Universal Design
-As students age, responsibility for make-up work in the case of missed classes should be placed on the student.
-Want to include!
-Make sure that your class understands the disorder
-Create a positive classroom environment where the student can feel safe
Possible Triggers for Seizures
- Strobe Lights
Certain timbres, pitches, or tone colors
- Certain colors
- Low Blood Sugar
- Other disabilities or diseases
"Cystic Fibrosis is a life-threatening genetic disease that causes mucus to build up and clog some of the organs in the body, particularly the lungs and pancreas." -text book
-causes difficulty breathing
-thick mucus causes bacteria to stick in the airways
-leads to inflammation and lung damage.
- affects 1 in 3,300 Caucasian births,
- 1 in 18,000 African American births, - 1 in 9,000 Hispanic births, and
- 1 in 90,000 Asian births
- degenerative disease
- mortality rate used to be late teen years
- more than half now live into their 30's and 40's
-offensive stools and gas
-delayed onset of puberty
These symptoms can cause problems socially and psychologically for the student.
What can we do for them?
- Help them feel welcome in our classroom
- Assist them in making up work
- Assist them in forming friendships
- Provide them with appropriate privacy for rest room and medication needs
- Help our other students understand the condition (if given permission)
-Collaborate with the student, parents, other teachers, and doctors
Pillars for HIV:
1- Be a good teacher:
Research HIV and the modes of transmission
Receive training from a health professional to learn how to handle situations involving HIV
Understand the specific needs of your student with HIV
Students with HIV may be out of class often for health reasons, so please give them enough time to complete a task
If a student has not gone public with their disease, do not out them in class
Allow the student to have the privacy to take care of retrovirals
Modify the Content
Not always necessary. Some students may not have any issues in school, but some may have developmental delays and cognitive disabilities that may be included in their paperwork.
Communicate with the classroom teacher in order to stay more up to date on the student
Model appropriate, non-discriminatory behavior towards your student with HIV- your students will follow suit
If a student with HIV portrays symptoms or behaviors associated with abuse, go through the school’s Mandated Reporting procedures
If you are unsure about something, talk to your school nurse
Suggest a school-wide HIV/AIDS awareness activity, lesson, week, etc in order to educate students about the disease
Work with the principal on Mandated Reporting procedures
If a student is being harassed and reports it to you, you should report it to your administration