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Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget
Transcript of Lev Vygotsky and Jean Piaget
Lev Vygotsky and Family
Theory of Cognitive Development
Zone of Proximal Development
Object Permanence Experiment
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Concrete Operational Stage
Ages 2 through 7
During this stage children are able to think about things in a symbolic way. Language develops as does memory and imagination. Thinking is intuitive not always logical.
Birth through 2 years
Infants learn through their senses.
Cognitive development occurs through the child's interaction with the environment. As the child's mobility increases so does cognitive development. Language begins to develop at the end of this stage.
Ages 7 through 12
Children in this stage are able to demonstrate concrete and logical thinking.
They are able to sort and classify.
There is an elimination of egocentrism and an
ability to decenter- understand multiple aspects of a problem such as the conservation experiment.
12 years and older
Individuals can think inductively and create hypothesis.
Individuals are able to think abstractly.
Logical reasoning and able to draw conclusions.
Begin to think like a scientist, testing and devising plans.
Gredler, M. (2003). Vygotsky, Lev (1896–1934). Encyclopedia of Education, 7, 2658. doi: Gale Virtual Reference Library
Krapp, K. (2005). Piaget, Jean. Psychologists and Their Theories for Students, 2, 345. doi: Gale Virtual Reference Library
Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934)
Studied philosophy and literature at Shanyavsky People's University while also completing master's degree in law at Moscow University.
Interested in education and psychology; asked to join Institute of Experimental Psychology in Moscow in 1924
Had no official training, but was able to accept position due to
changes in Soviet society
general field-wide intent to rebuild psychology
open to new ideas
"Psychology of Art" completed in 1925
Afterward, he aimed to
reconstruct psychology as a unified social science
explain origins and development of human consciousness
create research with unifying theory to avoid production of unrelated findings
Suffered from tuberculosis which interfered with professional life
lecturing throughout USSR
organizing research projects
conducting clinical work
writing late at night or during hospitalizations
Works banned in USSR in 1936 because of his "bourgeois thinking"
European and American linguists, psychologists, zoologists, and anthropologists' ideas used in his writing
Work has history of misinterpretation until 1990s
only limited translations, often fragments, available in English
long term impact unknown as of yet
Western psychologists and educators did not recognize him until 50 years after his death
theory of cognitive development (encouraged the study of children's)
created a research method
contributed ideas to pedology and special education that were forward-thinking
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
encouraged by his father, Arthur Piaget, a professor at Neuchatel University
Mother, Rebecca Piaget, was a politically active and possibly mentally ill Calvinist who encouraged son's religious education
he found religious instruction "childish"
Godfather and Swiss scholar, Samuel Cornut, recommended he begin studying philosophy
Deeply touched by French writer Henri Bergson's 1907 book, "Creative Evolution"
Received his Ph.D. at age 21 from the University of Neuchatel in 1918, Switzerland
Also in 1918, autobiographical "Recherche", which translates to "searching" was published
focused on conflict of science and religion
Moved to Paris in 1919 for postdoctoral studies
studied at the Sorbonne
logic, abnormal psychology, lectured in psychology and philosophy
worked as research associate with French school children (5-8 years old)
administered British standardized intelligence test at Simon-Binet experimental psychology laboratory
chose to investigate
how and why children gave incorrect answers
what was revealed regarding thought and reasoning processes and development
Returned to Switzerland in 1925
lived for remainder of his life
returned to work at Neuchatel University as professor of psychology, sociology, and the history of sciences
Not yet 30, was the most recognized psychologist in French-speaking world
Taught at University of Geneva for 10 years
studied children 4-12 researching development of logical thinking
collaborated with Professor Barbel Inhelder.
worked together for 40 years
published several books throughout professional relationship
collaborated with Alina Szeminsa
he stands out as having brought the work of women psychologists into distinction
In 1971 he was named Emeritus Professor at the University of Geneva, a position he held until his passing
WWII prevented his studies from attracting attention beyond Switzerland
ideas accepted in European countries but not found in American universities where behaviorist theories of human development prevailed in classroom
Served as director of International Bureau of Education in Geneva and collaborated with United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) from 1929–1967
Had strong effect in the fields of education, sociology, and developmental/child psychology.
Founder of the scientific discipline
coined the term "genetic epistemology" to describe pursuit of the origin and nature of knowledge
Heavily awarded, he received numerous honorary degrees, gained international acclaim, held memberships in over 20 academic societies
Intellectually active, he continued his research and publishing until death at 84
Born in 1896
Shared some constructivist views
Distinct biological, developmental stages
Physical objects in cognitive growth
Rejected mechanistic theories of behaviorism
Necessary relationship between individual and society
Understanding is social in origin
Died in 1934
Western Psychologist fifty years after death
Had access to Piaget's writings and was a critic
Believed historical and cultural forces shape development
Tools and cultural artifacts influence growth
Teacher and child relationship helps close ZPD gap, scaffolding
Self-talk: "formation of a plan that modifies subsequent behavior
To understand is to invent
Died in 1980
Published in U.S. post WWII, 1950
Vygotsky's research was unavailable to Piaget, due to language barriers. Did not read Vygotsky's criticisms until after Vygotsky's death.
Individual constructs knowledge
Self-talk: considered a cognitive limitation, "egocentric"
Development seemingly ends at adulthood
Mentioned in Piaget Article
J. Brunner, Harvard, describes stages that differ from Piaget and are influenced by Vygotsky.
J. Huttenlocher, U. of Chicago, combines ideas from Piaget and Vygotsky in describing spacial learning.
"[Vygotky's theories] may be more appropriately characterized as being different from, rather than in direct conflict with [Piaget's] (Cole & Wertsch, 1996).
Theory of Cognitive
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky believed Intelligence: the capacity to learn from instruction.
Language is the most important tool for gaining this social knowledge.
Scaffolding: Progression of different levels of help
Relevance of Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories in today’s classroom:
*Student achievement increased
*Various ways theories can be implemented
*Both theories are beneficial in the classroom
Practical application of Piaget’s theory:
*Align teaching strategies that help them have a better understanding of their students’ thinking and cognitive level.
*Goal is to help students construct knowledge.
- constructivist approach
- facilitate vs. direct learning
- consider student’s knowledge and level of thinking
-promote intellectual health
-turn classroom into a setting of exploration and discovery
Practical application of Vygotsky’s theory:
*Social interaction and modeling
*Students are engaged in:
-group problem solving
*meaningful and productive collaborative activities
*learning through play, formal instruction, or work between a learner and a more experienced learner