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Luke's Gospel GCSE 1-4 RS Years 9-10
Transcript of Luke's Gospel GCSE 1-4 RS Years 9-10
Background to Luke's Gospel
1.1 What is a gospel?
What do you think a gospel actually is? Can you define a gospel in your own words?
Are the gospels fact or fiction?
Where did these writings come from? Who?
What is the story of how these gospels emerged?
Cut Out Activity
Timeline 30 ad - 100 ad
Read the textbook
Create the timeline considering the following: what was happening in the first thirty years after Jesus' resurrection
What is a gospel? What was happening to the stories of Jesus before the gospels were written down?
Read together topic 1.1
Activity! Cut up the sheets containing chapter 8 of Luke and put the stories and teachings in different orders. What do you notice? What do we learn from this?
Discussion activity, p.9, questions 1a – d.
What is a gospel? Give a definition and a bit of explanation / example
Briefly describe how the early stories about Jesus were passed round (clue: they weren’t written down at first!!!)
Why were the stories eventually written down?
When do scholars think the 4 New Testament gospels were written?
Extension: write up selection of answers to 1a, b or c.
TO BE EDITED
By the end of the lesson you should understand more about the background and origins of Luke's gospel
Stop and Think
After this, Jesus traveled about from one town and village to another, proclaiming the good news of the kingdom of God. The Twelve were with him, 2 and also some women who had been cured of evil spirits and diseases: Mary (called Magdalene) from whom seven demons had come out; 3 Joanna the wife of Chuza, the manager of Herod’s household; Susanna; and many others. These women were helping to support them out of their own means.
4 While a large crowd was gathering and people were coming to Jesus from town after town, he told this parable: 5 “A farmer went out to sow his seed. As he was scattering the seed, some fell along the path; it was trampled on, and the birds ate it up. 6 Some fell on rocky ground, and when it came up, the plants withered because they had no moisture. 7 Other seed fell among thorns, which grew up with it and choked the plants. 8 Still other seed fell on good soil. It came up and yielded a crop, a hundred times more than was sown.”
When he said this, he called out, “Whoever has ears to hear, let them hear.”
9 His disciples asked him what this parable meant. 10 He said, “The knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of God has been given to you, but to others I speak in parables, so that,
“‘though seeing, they may not see;
though hearing, they may not understand.’[a]
11 “This is the meaning of the parable: The seed is the word of God. 12 Those along the path are the ones who hear, and then the devil comes and takes away the word from their hearts, so that they may not believe and be saved. 13 Those on the rocky ground are the ones who receive the word with joy when they hear it, but they have no root. They believe for a while, but in the time of testing they fall away. 14 The seed that fell among thorns stands for those who hear, but as they go on their way they are choked by life’s worries, riches and pleasures, and they do not mature. 15 But the seed on good soil stands for those with a noble and good heart, who hear the word, retain it, and by persevering produce a crop.
Jesus Raises a Dead Girl and Heals a Sick Woman
40 Now when Jesus returned, a crowd welcomed him, for they were all expecting him. 41 Then a man named Jairus, a synagogue leader, came and fell at Jesus’ feet, pleading with him to come to his house 42 because his only daughter, a girl of about twelve, was dying.
As Jesus was on his way, the crowds almost crushed him. 43 And a woman was there who had been subject to bleeding for twelve years,[c] but no one could heal her. 44 She came up behind him and touched the edge of his cloak, and immediately her bleeding stopped.
45 “Who touched me?” Jesus asked.
When they all denied it, Peter said, “Master, the people are crowding and pressing against you.”
46 But Jesus said, “Someone touched me; I know that power has gone out from me.”
47 Then the woman, seeing that she could not go unnoticed, came trembling and fell at his feet. In the presence of all the people, she told why she had touched him and how she had been instantly healed. 48 Then he said to her, “Daughter, your faith has healed you. Go in peace.”
49 While Jesus was still speaking, someone came from the house of Jairus, the synagogue leader. “Your daughter is dead,” he said. “Don’t bother the teacher anymore.”
50 Hearing this, Jesus said to Jairus, “Don’t be afraid; just believe, and she will be healed.”
51 When he arrived at the house of Jairus, he did not let anyone go in with him except Peter, John and James, and the child’s father and mother. 52 Meanwhile, all the people were wailing and mourning for her. “Stop wailing,” Jesus said. “She is not dead but asleep.”
53 They laughed at him, knowing that she was dead. 54 But he took her by the hand and said, “My child, get up!” 55 Her spirit returned, and at once she stood up. Then Jesus told them to give her something to eat. 56 Her parents were astonished, but he ordered them not to tell anyone what had happened
A Lamp on a Stand
16 “No one lights a lamp and hides it in a clay jar or puts it under a bed. Instead, they put it on a stand, so that those who come in can see the light. 17 For there is nothing hidden that will not be disclosed, and nothing concealed that will not be known or brought out into the open. 18 Therefore consider carefully how you listen. Whoever has will be given more; whoever does not have, even what they think they have will be taken from them.”
Jesus’ Mother and Brothers
19 Now Jesus’ mother and brothers came to see him, but they were not able to get near him because of the crowd. 20 Someone told him, “Your mother and brothers are standing outside, wanting to see you.”
21 He replied, “My mother and brothers are those who hear God’s word and put it into practice.”
Jesus Calms the Storm
22 One day Jesus said to his disciples, “Let us go over to the other side of the lake.” So they got into a boat and set out. 23 As they sailed, he fell asleep. A squall came down on the lake, so that the boat was being swamped, and they were in great danger.
24 The disciples went and woke him, saying, “Master, Master, we’re going to drown!”
He got up and rebuked the wind and the raging waters; the storm subsided, and all was calm. 25 “Where is your faith?” he asked his disciples.
In fear and amazement they asked one another, “Who is this? He commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him.”
Jesus Restores a Demon-Possessed Man
26 They sailed to the region of the Gerasenes,[b] which is across the lake from Galilee. 27 When Jesus stepped ashore, he was met by a demon-possessed man from the town. For a long time this man had not worn clothes or lived in a house, but had lived in the tombs. 28 When he saw Jesus, he cried out and fell at his feet, shouting at the top of his voice, “What do you want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I beg you, don’t torture me!” 29 For Jesus had commanded the impure spirit to come out of the man. Many times it had seized him, and though he was chained hand and foot and kept under guard, he had broken his chains and had been driven by the demon into solitary places.
30 Jesus asked him, “What is your name?”
“Legion,” he replied, because many demons had gone into him. 31 And they begged Jesus repeatedly not to order them to go into the Abyss.
32 A large herd of pigs was feeding there on the hillside. The demons begged Jesus to let them go into the pigs, and he gave them permission. 33 When the demons came out of the man, they went into the pigs, and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the lake and was drowned.
34 When those tending the pigs saw what had happened, they ran off and reported this in the town and countryside, 35 and the people went out to see what had happened. When they came to Jesus, they found the man from whom the demons had gone out, sitting at Jesus’ feet, dressed and in his right mind; and they were afraid. 36 Those who had seen it told the people how the demon-possessed man had been cured. 37 Then all the people of the region of the Gerasenes asked Jesus to leave them, because they were overcome with fear. So he got into the boat and left.
38 The man from whom the demons had gone out begged to go with him, but Jesus sent him away, saying, 39 “Return home and tell how much God has done for you.” So the man went away and told all over town how much Jesus had done for him.
What do you notice if you re-arrange the gospel segments?
Does re-arranging the stories make any difference to the narrative flow?
What would happen if we did the same with two chapters of a Harry Potter book?
What does this tell us about Luke's gospel?
Which comes first - stories told or stories written?
33ad - Resurrection of Jesus
Stories about Jesus
100 ad Death of the last apostles
An oral tradition emerges
The gospels are written down
the eye witnesses start to die
The essential stories of Jesus survive
The letters of paul are written
Approx 65 Mark's gospel is written
Approx 90 John's gospel is written
Luke is about 70-75 as is Matthew
1.2 Sources of Luke: The Synoptic Problem
Mark 9:2-8 // Matthew 17:1-8 // Luke 9:28-36 (the story of the transfiguration)
Mark 10:17-31 // Matthew 19:16-30 // Luke 18:18-30
Matthew, Mark and Luke have all handed in their homework. What do you notice?
Problem part 1: why are they so similar?
They have lots of material which they share.
The main stages of Jesus’ life are in the same order.
Similar or identical wording is used. Mark has 660 verses: 606 (95%) are found in Matthew, using 51% of Mark’s actual words. 320 are found in Luke, using 53% of Mark’s actual words.
They have very similar styles and phrases.
Problem part 2
Matthew and Luke share 200-250 verses which are not found in Mark.
Problem part 3
Luke and Matthew have material which only appears in their own gospels, e.g. one-third of Luke is not found in any other gospel.
The Synoptic Problem
Why are the synoptic gospels so similar and yet so different? Try to solve this problem yourself:
1.2 What were the sources for Luke’s Gospel?
320 of Marks’s 660 verses are found in Luke.
Luke uses 53% of Mark’s actual words.
Luke follows Mark’s order of events exactly.
When Luke copies Mark, he tidies up his popular-style Greek and poor grammar, e.g.:
Mark uses the historic present tense 151 times. Luke edits this down to 1!
Mark includes lots of ‘double phrases’ (e.g. “that evening, at sundown”) which Luke shortens.
Mark includes unnecessary details which Luke edits away.
Luke’s gospel includes more detail, for example Jesus’ birth. Therefore, Luke has used Mark and added more information.
Mark often shows the disciples as ‘slow’ and Jesus as angry or impatient. Luke edits these out to show Jesus and the disciples in a better light.
There are 31 verses in Mark which neither Matthew nor Luke have used. These verses include Jesus being called “beside himself” (out of his mind), using spit to heal a blind man, and a miracle which does not work the first time so Jesus has a second go. Luke (and Matthew) copied Mark but left out things they did not like.
How do we know that Luke used Mark’s gospel as a source?
Compare the following:
Mark 4:38 // Luke 8:24
Mark 4:13 // Luke 8:11
Mark 6:3 // Luke 4:22
Mark 3:5 // Luke 6:10-11
Mark 1:32 // Luke 4:40
Mark 4:35-41 // Luke 8:22-25
Do some research into the ‘Q’ document, a source he shared with Matthew. What was ‘Q’? What did it contain?
About half of Luke’s gospel is unique to Luke. In the introduction to the gospel, Luke says he has used a combination of written and oral sources. Find and copy a list of the main stories and teachings that only appear in Luke. What do you notice about this material?
How do we know Luke used Mark as a source?
Compare the following (activity 1 a-d, page 10):
He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. And he stood up to read.
22All spoke well of him and were amazed at the gracious words that came from his lips. "Isn't this Joseph's son?" they asked.
23Jesus said to them, "Surely you will quote this proverb to me: 'Physician, heal yourself! Do here in your hometown what we have heard that you did in Capernaum.' "
24"I tell you the truth," he continued, "no prophet is accepted in his hometown.
1Jesus left there and went to his hometown, accompanied by his disciples. 2When the Sabbath came, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many who heard him were amazed. "Where did this man get these things?" they asked. "What's this wisdom that has been given him, that he even does miracles! 3Isn't this the carpenter? Isn't this Mary's son and the brother of James, Joseph, Judas and Simon? Aren't his sisters here with us?" And they took offense at him.
4Jesus said to them, "Only in his hometown, among his relatives and in his own house is a prophet without honour." 5He could not do any miracles there, except lay his hands on a few sick people and heal them. 6And he was amazed at their lack of faith.
Luke’s own source
Matthew’s own source
'M' - Matthew's own source
'L' - Luke's own source
'Q' (German word for source is Quelle)
Why scholars are divided over Q as a source for Luke
By the end of the lesson you should:
Know and Understand the main arguments against Q as a source of Luke. The contribution of some scholars to the debate. Finally, what exactly do scholars say Q consists of.
Read through the article on Q from Wikipedia and underline and highlight the main arguments for Q and secondly the main arguments against Q.
Outline briefly what exactly Q is supposed to consist of.
There is a lot of verbal agreement between M and L that is not found in Mark.
There is no manuscript of Q because it has been included in M and L.
Luke mentions another source of Jesus sayings
There has been citations of it in the text
It has a story about the Roman centurion that agrees with the timeline and other historical data
Q isn't the only documentary source that wasn't copied
Early Christian communities borrowed from many sources
The structure and order is the same
Sources of Luke: 'L'
What do the following images have in common?
What message is Jesus trying to get across from these stories?
What manner of behaviour is being encouraged?
By the end of the lesson you should:
Know and Understand the focus of the 'L' source used by Luke
Be able to read and analyse a variety of stories that are in Luke and in no other Gospel
Consider why Luke is often called the gospel of the poor and the outcast
The Good Samaritan Story
Prep: How can Christians today demonstrate the truth of the gospel message? Give reasons for your answer.
A. Imagine you are interviewing Luke for ‘60-second news’ about his new book, the gospel. Write out the questions you might ask and imagine the answers you would get back.
B. If Luke wanted to spread the gospel today, would he write a book? What else could he use? Would this survive and be as effective?
C. For the brave... Do some independent research to identify the mysterious ‘Theophilus’.
1. Why is Luke writing his gospel? what evidence can we use?
2. Read pages 24-25 of your text book and from this answer questions 1-3. Focus on any clues raised by the text book as to why Luke wrote his gospel.
3. Compare Luke 1:1-4 with the opening of the book of Acts. What do you notice? What does it tell us? What is similar and what is different.
1.9 Introduction to Luke
1 Since many have undertaken to set down an orderly account of the events that have been fulfilled among us, 2 just as they were handed on to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word, 3 I too decided, after investigating everything carefully from the very first, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus, 4 so that you may know the truth concerning the things about which you have been instructed.
Luke 1:1-4 Dedication to Theophilus
1.10 Why Luke wrote his gospel: the prophecy of Jesus
Read pages 26-27 of the text book
Q. "The prophecy of Jesus reveals why Luke wrote his gospel". Evaluate with reasons.
Extension: memorise the last four verses of Jesus' prophecy.
Q. what does this passage tell us?
Ans: Jesus as a Jew prayed in the synagogue
The themes from Isaiah's prophecy are the same themes that Luke had expressed as being those of Jesus.
Therefore, these themes contain some of the reasons why Luke was writing the gospel.
The prophecy is a summary of the characteristics of a messiah. In some ways, it describes exactly what Jesus did and his purpose as a messiah.
It says he is the anointed one i.e. the messiah.
The characteristics are:
preaching good news
proclaiming release to captives
sight to the blind
freedom for the oppressed (more than political freedom but could be spiritual and moral)
proclaim the year of the Lord
1.6 Who was Jesus?
IF IT HELPS, LIST YOUR IDEAS IN TWO COLUMNS:
The Historical Jesus Jesus as Son of God
By the end of these two lessons, you will be able to:
explain how Luke shows that Jesus is not just another Jewish teacher
investigate and evaluate some of the historical evidence for the existence of Jesus
consider for yourself the question, ‘Who is Jesus?’ in the light of Luke’s gospel and other historical documents
Copy out this sentence: “In his gospel, Luke shows Jesus as being both a historical person (the Jesus of history), and the Son of God (the Jesus of faith).”
Read pages 18-19 of your text book. List some examples of how Luke shows that Jesus is an historical person.
Question 3, page 19: Luke wants his readers to believe that Jesus is the Son of God, and not just another Jewish teacher. How does he do this? Give some examples.
Extension. Choose from the following:
Question 4, p.19.
Would it make a difference to your attitude towards Jesus if some of Luke’s historical information could be proven?
He was visited by the angel
He performed miracles
The birth story of Jesus
The intervention of God in the early life of Jesus
Born of Mary
Born in Bethlehem
Grew up in Nazareth
Related to John the Baptist
Trained as a carpenter
Educated and able to read Hebrew
His religion was Judaism
Preached and became a rabbi
Executed on a cross and accused of blasphemy and treason
Attracted many followers
The Jesus of Faith:
Mary was visited by an angel and was told her newborn would be the Son of the Most high
He is the Son of God
The Virgin Birth
Rose from the dead
Who do you say that Jesus is?
Door and Window
1.8 1st Century Historical Context of Luke's Gospel - Persecution of Christians
Be able to explain why Christians were persecuted in the 1st Century
Know and understand how persecuted readers of Luke might be supported and comforted by his words
Extension and Prep
Research how and where Christians are persecuted today. Would Luke's gospel still support and comfort them in these new difficulties?
1. Why did Christians remain within Judaism at first?
It was safer to remain
They used the synagogues to worship in
Fear of persecution from Jews
The first Christians were Jews
The new covenant updates the old covenant to include gentiles but the identity of the new movement as God's people on earth was the same
2. What happened to create a separation between those who followed Jusaism and the CHristians?
3. Why did the Romans persecute the Christians?
4. Give four reasons why persecuted CHristians may have felt supported by Luke's gospel.
5. How would a written gospel help to develop the community of early Christians.
Christian Persecution in C1 Roman World
Q, Who did the persecuting?
Ans: The Romans, for reasons of crimes against their Gods because Christians would not sacrifice to the Roman gods which was seen to be blasphemy and the cause of bad luck.
Unit 1.10 Jesus' Preaching in Nazareth
Ans = To bind the broken hearted, proclaim the year of the Lord's favour, preach to the poor etc. He is promising a renewal of the Kingdom of God and that this would be the time when the Messiah has come. A new world order.
Jesus was claiming he was God's anointed one i.e. the messiah. He would be the one who would transform society e.g. proclaim a jubilee year and relieve the suffering of the poor and oppressed.
1.11 The Rejection of Jesus in Nazareth 1.11
Elijah and Elisha
The Reaction of the Crowd
Can you understand why the crowd reacted against him?
What does Jesus have in common with Elijah and Elisha?
What was it about Jesus and his message that caused the rejection?
How might Christians feel rejected today?
Can you think of any modern parallels to this story?
Does Luke have another agenda in telling this story?
By the end of the lesson you should:
Know and Understand - the reasons behind Jesus' rejection in his home town.
Be able to - identify how and why this passage is important for Christians even in today's society
Christian aid who helps marginalised people.
Society of St Vincent de Paul helps relieve poverty
CAFOD is an charitable organization to help others in the world.
People want to live like Jesus
Concern for the outcast and those suffering
People will want to follow this teaching
Christians will follow Jesus as a role model e.g. having faith and trust in others and perhaps people from other religions.
People will be inspired to live prophetically just like Jesus.
Not everyone accepted him because the locals saw him as just a carpenter and having no authority to teach.
He referred to himself in messianic terms which was challenging to the local people and religious authorities. By saying he is the fulfilment of the scriptures this was unacceptable to people at that time.
Also, the people who would be challenged would not accept him e.g. the rich, the free, the 'religiously righteous', the slave owner, the powerful.
People who need his help e.g. slaves, poor, those who are blind and especially captives of any kind.
Anyone who is down or experiencing difficulties in life .eg. marriage breakdowns, illness, bereavement etc.
For everyone who is having difficulties and not just the Jewish people.
Finally, people who have lost their way religiously through lack of faith and especially those who sin.
It could also refer to the Pharisees and people who are narrow in their views and interpretations of what God wants.
Ans = Free the oppressed and deliver the good news. That means the prisoners, poor and those who are suffering from Romans or others.
To free not just Jews but all people and so he has come to bring universal salvation. It is not just physical ailments it is also those who are spiritually or morally blind or impoverished.
1. Why did Martin Luther King feel it was important to work for the rights of black people in the USA?
1.12 Interpreting Jesus Today
Who do you say I am?
Is Jesus relevant for today?
How might Jesus and his teachings be reinterpreted to stay fresh in modern culture?
5. What can an individual Christian do to follow the example of Jesus in working for the rights of those rejected by others?
4. Should Christians lead the world in working for the rights of outsiders?
Because Christians are commanded to help others and live according to Jesus' teachings in the bible.
Charities also fulfil them because they are doing the same work of raising justice and liberation issues for the most needy and marginalized in our world.
2. How did Jesus' work reflect his attitude to those who were oppressed and outside society?
Explore and understand how Luke's gospel can be relevant to modern society.
Be able to - answer questions on examples of how Jesus may be relevant today
He felt it was important because he believed along with Jesus that all people are equal and with dignity in God's eyes. In particular, freeing himself and his people was an important command of the gospel.
By helping others it shows the depth of his inclusive love and compassion for the lowest of society. It also shows that in God's kingdom the least in our society will be first in God's eyes. Jesus has a preferential love to include those who were marginalised.
To know and understand the terminology and origins of salvation history within Christianity
Be able to - discuss and assess the saving presence of God within human history
1. What do we mean by the term salvation?
2. What is salvation history?
3. What are the origins of Christian belief in Salvation history?
4. "People today don't feel the need for salvation". Assess this view by giving reasons for and against.
5. Is there any evidence that God intervenes in world events today?
Prep: Revision for test next week on 'Background to Luke's Gospel'.
the first major event of salvation history for the Jews was the Exodus story (freeing of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt). Moses led his people out of slavery through the intervention of God helping the Israelites and punishing the oppressive Egyptians. The key event here is that God intervened to save his people and protect them from oppression.
The second major event is the Babylonian exile when a foreign king captured, enslaved and transported the entire nation of Israel to the region of Babylon to live and become slaves.
Salvation history for the first Jews depended on how obedient they were to the covenant. During times when they were faithful they enjoyed good times. Likewise, at times when they as a people were unfaithful and forgetful of God's laws then God's punishment would follow e.g. exile.
Cyrus was God's chosen instrument to save the people of Israel from captivity and return them to the promised land. This shows that God keeps his promise to protect and guide his people. God stays faithful even though the people abandon his ways.
Again this shows that God is acting in human history through individuals to make his goals happen.
Introduction to Salvation and Salvation History
Salvation in Jesus' Time
Q1. What kind of salvation did Jews long for in the time of Jesus?
Q2. What did the first Christians understand salvation to refer to?
Q3. How might one's view of the nature of salvation influence what one believes about the messiah?
Q4. Is 'salvation' something that can only be experienced after death?
Read pages 36-37
Answer questions 1-3 on page 37.
Extension and Differentiated Work:
a. What kind of Messiah were the Jews expecting in 1st century Palestine? Draw up a job description and person specification.
b. Moses delivered the Israelites from Pharaoh and slavery in Egypt. King Cyrus saved the Jews from exile in Babylonia. What do you think Jesus has come to deliver people from, according to Luke? Write 10 lines.
c. Why might 1st century Jews have been disappointed with Jesus?
d. Compare the Jewish understanding of the Messiah with Luke’s presentation of the salvation offered through Jesus. Draw up a table. An example has been done for you:
Recap of Last Lesson on 'Salvation History'
What does the term ‘salvation history’ mean?
What are the two key moments of ‘salvation’ in Jewish history?
1. Is there any evidence that God intervenes in world events today? Is there any evidence that he does not?
2. Is salvation something that can only be experienced after death?
3. What questions are raised for you by this topic? Which are the best questions? Why? How would you go about answering them? What would you need to know?
What kind of Messiah? Luke's version versus Jewish understanding
Jewish Messianic Expectations
Jesus's understanding of salvation
Jesus will save all people (universal salvation)
Messiah will save the Jewish people
A Birth is Announced
The Annunciation Luke 1
Q. How does the annunciation show Jesus as the messiah who will bring salvation to the world? Write ONE full page to explain.
P. 39 Q.5 = 'The Annunciation proves that Jesus is the Messiah.' Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
Read chapter 2.3 and answer questions 1-4.
1. Why was Mary 'troubled' by the angel's visit?
She was surprised at being visited by an angel. Also, she couldn't understand how she could bear a child when she was still a virgin.
Evaluating the Annunciation
4. How does Mary set an example for Christians today?
She presents herself as fully open and obedient to God's wishes. In the same spirit of obedience and openness we should live our lives according to how God wants.
3. In what way does the annunciation identify Jesus as the Messiah?
He is called the Son of the Most high. He is different from other human messiahs from the past. His origin is also divine which sets him apart as the chosen one from God.
2. What is the importance of the name 'Jesus'?
Jesus is Greek for Joshua and this is a significantly holy name at that time. The exact meaning is unsure however he is also announced as Immanuel (the chosen one of God). The name is also referring to the one who will save or God saves.
2.4 The Importance of the Birth Announcement
1. Why is the name of Jesus important?
2. Jesus is described as 'Son of the Most High'. What does this actually mean?
3. Explain the meaning of the word 'Annunciation'
4. Why was using the phrase 'Son of God' dangerous?
Introduction - Mary the new Eve (Jesus the new Adam)
Christians from the earliest days have always compared and contrasted Jesus with Adam and likewise Mary with Eve.
1. What did EVE 'conceive and give birth to'? What was the moment of 'conception' in her heart? (To whom did she listen and believe?)
2. What did MARY 'conceive and give birth to'? What was the moment of 'conception' in her body? (To whom did she listen and believe?)
3. Eve believed nothing was impossible for ...
Mary believed nothing was impossible for ....
4. Briefly describe Eve and Mary's differing responses to the Word of God?
5. Luke is making it clear that Jesus as the Messiah is coming to save us. However, what shall we be saved
Why are the titles of Jesus important?
It shows that he is important and is special. He is unique among humans in his relationship with God.
It reveals different sides or different aspects of Jesus ( his role and identity).
It gives Jesus a unique authority i.e. God's chosen messiah who will come to save God's people.
This Jesus distinguishes him from other people as it speaks about his purpose.
It tells us why he was killed and so it reveals some of the cultural bias and beliefs about blasphemy.
Finally, they are important because they reveal what the first Christians believed about Jesus i.e. he was indeed the Messiah and more so it reveals Jesus as both God and human.
The meaning of this passage is:
This explains why Jesus was born in Bethlehem and so it supports the claim of Christians that he should be called Son of David.
It supports the humanity of Jesus who was born a real human from a real human.
There are unusual circumstances surrounding his birth e.g. born in a stable, he had very humble beginnings, he was born homeless, there was no room for him at the inn
It contains apparent historical information that will verify its truth to non-Jewish readers e.g. the census of Qurinius
Second king of Israel
He was a psalmist (writer of religious songs and poetry addressed to God)
He killed Goliath
He started building the temple at Jerusalem (which is still the holiest place or building for modern day Jews)
Finally, he was an historical messiah who ruled over his people with justice and righteousness
What is the meaning of this birth narrative of Luke 2:1-7?
King David Factoids
Q.4 Why is a manger important in the story?
This is significant for the shepherds. Later Jesus is called the good shepherd in how he leads and cares for his flock. There is also the suggestion that his mission is to feed and nourish the people of Israel with truth, compassion and God's presence in the Eucharist.
2.6 The Shepherds Visit Jesus
1. Why do you think the shepherds were the first people that the birth of Jesus was announced to?
There is a connection to Jesus who was later called the good shepherd. Shepherds were poor and lowly in society which shows that God's message wasn inclusive of every single person no matter their status. The majority of shepherds would have been very young and traditionally a job for children. There is a connection to Mary and Joseph as ordinary people. God appears to ordinary people.
5. Do you agree with Geza Vermes that the birth of Jesus was a 'low key' event?
despite the rurual earthly setting the presence of angels transforms this to something very special
it was very prominent because Herod was interested in the birth of the messiah. So if Herod gave it importance so should we.
There were lots of people present to witness this birth compared to most births
Finally, the lowly origins fits in with Christian understanding of the nature of God's kingdom
only low status people were present.
it is a pretty normal event that happens all the time in the countryside at that time
there is no major historical record of the birth
4. How do the birth narratives show that God is intervening in our history?
3. Make a list of all the ways in which Luke emphasises in this narrative that Jesus is the Messiah?
shepherds are told that this newborn child will be a saviour
the acclamation 'Glory to God in the Highest' is linked to previous OT messiahs
He was born in the city of David which links him to David's king who was a prominent messiah from the past
The virgin birth is a miraculous event and shows that God has intervened in history
There are messianic titles used e.g. saviour, christ, the lord etc
the number of angels present suggest this was a major event of God's intervention in history
this messiah child will bring good news and joy
2. What is the importance of the angels in this story?
They deliver God's message and bring good news to the people. They testify that this messiah is from God and has God's approval. They also suggest that this messiah is different from other historical messiahs in having divine origin.
They are symbols of God's desire for people to be in peace and to be rescued from the reality of sin. In other words, they testify to the reality of universal salvation.
2.7 The Presentation in the Temple
Read pages 46-47
Why was Jesus presented in the temple?
Why does this story of Jesus infancy survive?
Answer questions 1-4 on page 47
How does the story of the presentation of Jesus in the temple benefit Luke's overall theme of universal salvation? The text gives many direct clues, outline three of these.
2.8 Faith and Salvation
Read the passage about the miraculous healing of Jairus' daughter
What does this passage say about faith?
What does faith do for the individual?
What message is Luke trying to get across?
Complete questions 3 and 5 on page 49:
3.Why do you think the crowd reacted as they did when Jesus said the girl was not dead?
5. Does the miracle lose any of its value if the girl was only in a coma? say why it does or does not.
a. Write a diary entry / interview for either Jairus or the woman with the haemorrhage. Why did you go to Jesus? What happened? What did Jesus say? How did others react? What does ‘being saved’ mean to you?
b. Why might someone today say these are not true miracles? What other explanations could be given?
c. Discuss: Does the healing of Jairus’ daughter lose any of its value if the girl was only in a coma? Why?
d. Discuss: Why is the healing of the woman with the haemorrhage more difficult to explain away?
What can Christians learn from these miracle stories today?
e. By touching an apparently dead body and a woman with a permanent haemorrhage, Jesus would have become “ritually unclean” in the eyes of Jews, However, he seemed unconcerned about this. Which groups in society may currently be considered as outcasts? How should Christians treat outcasts today?
2.9 Faith leading to salvation
The daughter of Jairus and the Woman with a Haemorrhage, Luke 8:40-56
•What did ‘salvation’ mean to Jairus and to the woman with the haemorrhage?
After reading 2.8 The healing of Jairus’ daughter’, p.48-49 now read 2.9 ‘The miracle of the healing of the woman with a haemorrhage’, p.50-51. In these two stories there is a very clear link between ‘faith’ and ‘salvation’.
Reactions to Jesus in these miracle stories
•Make a note of the different reactions to Jesus in these miracle stories.
•Discuss: Why do you think the crowd reacted as they did when Jesus said the girl was not dead?
•Discuss: How did the woman with the haemorrhage, and the crowd, expect Jesus to react to being touched? Why would this have been the case?
•Look at Jesus’ exact words to Jairus and to the woman with the haemorrhage. How are they similar?
Faith and salvation
•Why would it have been difficult for a) Jairus and b) the woman with the haemorrhage to approach Jesus?
•What is the link between ‘faith’ and ‘salvation’ in these two miracles? Why is faith so important in these healings?
How does the woman with the haemorrhage show faith in Jesus?
Which groups in society today may be considered to be outcasts.
How should Christians treat outcasts? Use evidence from Luke to support your answer.
•What is the significance of the mention of fear in each of these stories? (Link back to the birth narratives.)
Character-assess the different personalities in the story: Simon the Pharisee, the woman, Jesus, God.
Analysis of the Text
2.10 Jesus and the Sinful Woman
Write One paragraph in response to the following:
1. Explain why were the guests shocked at Jesus’ attitude towards the woman?
2.Describe how the woman’s actions reveal Jesus as Messiah?
3.Outline what we learn from this story about salvation, and the love of God?
(a)Read the story of the sinful woman
(b) Discuss the following: what is the meaning of this passage; what does it say about salvation
a. What can Christians learn from this parable for today?
b. Make a brief note of any similarities between this story and the healing of Jairus’ daughter and the woman with the haemorrhage.
c. Make a spider diagram of the different reactions to Jesus in this story.
d. What are the limits of forgiveness? Should there be any?
Jesus eating with a Pharisee (unusual)
talking to a prostitute (unusual)
the reactions of the guests
of ‘anointing’/Messiah as ‘anointed one’
The parable and its point: the woman knows the meaning of forgiveness; the host does not.
The theme of salvation through faith.
2.11 Parable of the Two Debtors
How does it connect to our previous story of the Sinful Woman?
What does it say about forgiveness?
Revisit the rejection of Jesus at Nazareth (covered in the first term)
Complete the activities on the handout
Finish this for homework
God: God is one who forgives the debts of everyone no matter how many they have accumulated. The amount of sins are compared to a financial debt which is beyond the ability of individuals to repay. God is more than willing to forgive our debts.
Those forgiven: the attitude to have is "love" - which of those will love him more. In this case love is more than a feeling but involves actions, e.g. the actions of the sinful woman: falling humbly at the feet of Jesus; she wept and with these tears used them to wash Jesus' feet (tears could be happiness, relief, but also remorse and sorrow at her sins); she anointed him with oil and so acknowledged him as the Christ.
The message about salvation is that it must be properly received - God freely forgives yet the individual must receive this with faith, love and gratitude
How is this passage still relevant today?
Prep for next lesson - Write an extended paragraph on:
The Rejection of Jesus
How does Luke show that Jesus is the messiah?
Firstly, he reads the prophetic passage on the messiah and what the messiah does and says this is being fulfilled.
Jesus is accepting his identity as the anointed one
Also, this passage is being read in the first person
A messiah can be recognized as one who:
brings salvation, sight to the blind, frees people, proclaims God etc. These are all actions that Jesus did during his earthly ministry - messianic actions.
Why did the Jews reject Jesus?
They know his origins as a carpenter's son and so it is difficult for them to believe that he may have been especially chosen by God as the saviour of God's people Israel
Jesus knew that he was unlikely to be accepted because he quotes an OT prophecy that said 'No prophet is accepted in his own country'.
There was a history of prophets being rejected and opposed by the people. They are persecuted because the people found it difficult to accept God's rule of life
q.3 Luke is showing there is a precedent of prophets bringing God's message of salvation to non-Jews and Gentiles. Jesus is being loyal and odedient to this tradition and so his message is open to every single person.
Yes. He is alerting the readers to the reality of Jesus death which has been always present from the start of his public ministry.
On the other hand, rejection doesn't necessarily mean he will be killed.
Yet, by linking Jesus to OT prophets and reminding readers of how they are treated he is suggesting this will also happen to Jesus.
Revising Luke's Teaching on Salvation - Presentations
Prepare a revision friendly presentation on one of the topics below. Your presentation can be a prezi, PowerPoint or a large poster. Use your notes and the text book to research possible answers to ONE of the headings below. Use your time well to gather as much information relevant to your topic (remember that you don’t have to agree with the heading and have freedom to approach it from all angles. Once your preparatory work is completed (individually) you may (with your teacher’s permission) consult other classmates doing the same topic. If you prefer to develop your own and work independently that is also fine. The teacher will choose which presentation will be shown to your classmates.
(a) How does Luke show that Jesus was sent for the salvation of all people.
(b) How has Luke updated traditional Jewish ideas of salvation.
(c) The birth stories are all about Jesus as saviour and Messiah.
(d) For Luke faith and salvation are inextricably linked.
(e) Luke's presentation of salvation is especially 'good news' for outcasts and women.
(f) The miracles of Jesus reveal Jesus as Messiah and Saviour.
(g) Luke's idea of universal salvation was not universally liked or received.
In groups of 3 or 4 go through the revision pack and create quiz style questions that will be asked of your colleagues. If they get your question right they score two points if not you score a point.
Please ensure you write the answer beside your question in your exercise books.
Authority of Jesus
3.1 The Titles of Jesus
In this topic, candidates should show understanding of Luke’s portrayal of Jesus as an authoritative figure through his emphasis on Jesus’ empowerment by the Spirit and through the use of certain titles.
They should also understand the significance of this for Christians in their assessment of Jesus.
the role of the Holy Spirit in the life of Jesus•
the baptism of Jesus: 3 21–22
the temptations: 4 1–13
Titles for Jesus: Lord, Christ/Messiah, Son of Man, Son of God.
the healing of the paralysed man: 5 17–26
Peter’s declaration: 9 18–23
the transfiguration: 9 28–36
Martha and Mary: 10 38–42
How does Luke show that Jesus has authority?
Titles – Christ/Messiah, Son of God, Son of Man, Lord
Healings and miracles – seen as a sign of God’s presence
Holy Spirit descends on him at his Baptism
God calls him “My Son” – Baptism and Transfiguration
Resists Satan – defeats the devil
Able to forgive sins – only God could do this, therefore acting on behalf of God... Is God?
Rises from the dead
Recognised as son of God by, e.g. disciples, the devil, God, angel, lepers, demons
Recognised as Messiah by e.g. Peter, crowds, JTB, sinful woman, Simeon
Angels announce his birth
Transfiguration: Jesus takes over from the Law and the Prophets in bringing people back to God.
What gave Jesus authority?
Holy Spirit and Titles?
Who or what is the Holy Spirit?
What does the Holy Spirit do?
In groups of 3-4 fill in the hand out on what the role of the HS is. Once you have completed each section please write down all the words that describe the Holy Spirit.
Why is there an apparent absence of the HS between chapters 4 and chapter 23 of Luke's gospel?
The Holy Spirit
In pairs do one of the following summarising exercises from the handout on the HS:
1. Summarise the role of the Holy Spirit in Luke
2. Summarise how Luke uses the HS to show Jesus has divine authority
3. Create a mindmap of each summary
Complete the other mindmap on the HS AND fill in the self evaluation page at the back of the Salvation assessment.
Four Titles are used about Jesus in Luke's gospel:
Christ - Messiah
Son of God
Son of Man
3.2 The Role of John the Baptist
Why does Luke use this title 'Christ'? Who is he trying to convince?
The Son of Man title is important because of its two meanings (equivocal) which suited Jesus' purposes.
Secondly, it is important because it is the title Jesus used about himself.
Who was John the baptist?
Why is he important to Christians?
How does he actually prepare for Jesus?
Read pages 60-61 (discuss outcomes above and what this information reveals about them)
Complete activity 4 in your exercise books
By the end of the lesson you should know and understand:
Sacrament: An outward sign of inward grace. Baptism is a sacrament of initiation. The outward sign is water. The inward grace (help from God) is forgiveness of sins and belonging to God's family.
How does John's ministry as a prophet support Jesus as the expression of God's authority on earth.
Prep: Do one of the following
Research one Christian article on the Trinity (give a handwritten summary including the web address)
Explain what Christians believe about the Trinity
Yes because ....
we need to pay more attention to ethical rules of behaviour
there is still a need to promote justice and fairness in our world and so we need people like John to remind us
Some individuals are reluctant to commit to God and may be embarassed in doing so
Our world is even more unfair now than it was in the time of Jesus and John the Baptist
There is greater potential to spread his message via social media
No because ....
Our society naturally does this and we don't need a religious leader to remind us e.g. it is up to ourselves to want to change.
Charitable actions such as comic relief remind us of the reality of the world and our need to change
3.3 The Baptism of Jesus
Read through the information in chapter 3.3 on 'The Baptism of Jesus'
How does the story of Jesus' baptism show his authority? Find as many ideas as you can, produce a detailed response
"you are my son" - voice from heaven
Jesus is present with the HS
The Trinity is revealed at the start of his ministry
It gives divine support for what he is trying to do
Ultimately, his authority to teach comes directly from God.
What is the Christian concept of the Trinity?
The Trinity is the Christian teaching about God:
One God in Three Persons - God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. Not three Gods but one God in unity.
Where can the 'Trinity' be seen in the Baptism narrative?
Three persons of the trinity are seen in this story for the first time: Jesus is the Son, the dove represents the HS and the voice from heaven is that of God the Father.
The voice from heaven gave Jesus all the authority that he needed.' Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer (use information from Luke and the text book).
There is no higher authority than this in the universe
It is not blasphemy to say that 'I am the son of man' (divine title)
It gives him power to perform miracles based on his closeness to God
It gives him inner belief and affirmation that he was doing exactly what God wanted
He needs this affirmation to cope with the difficulties of his ministry and suffering and death
It helps believers to appreciate the true identity of Jesus and to be able to whole heartedly follow his way and teaching
No because ...
He was already teaching and promoting God's message before this
Not everyone will accept this story e.g. scribes, pharisees, atheists
It is open to interpretations
Jesus' authority continues to grow and develop up until his death and resurrection
a. Should Christians be baptised as infants? Read the article and highlight the key arguments of infant baptism and arguments in favour of believers' baptism
b. How does the baptism of Jesus influence what Christians do and believe today? Write an extended paragraph giving examples and reasons.
Who was baptised here?
Why were you baptised?
What does baptism mean for people today?
Is the baptism of infants denying them freedom of thought, conscience and religion?
Should we baptise infants?
3.4 The Temptations
The Temptation of Jesus, Luke 4:1-13
1 Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, left the Jordan and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, 2 where for forty days he was tempted by the devil. He ate nothing during those days, and at the end of them he was hungry.
3 The devil said to him, “If you are the Son of God, tell this stone to become bread.”
4 Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Man shall not live on bread alone.’ ”
5 The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. 6 And he said to him, “I will give you all their authority and splendour; it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. 7 If you worship me, it will all be yours.”
8 Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.’ ”
9 The devil led him to Jerusalem and had him stand on the highest point of the temple. “If you are the Son of God,” he said, “throw yourself down from here. 10 For it is written:
“‘He will command his angels concerning you
to guard you carefully;
11 they will lift you up in their hands,
so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’ ”
12 Jesus answered, “It is said: ‘Do not put the Lord your God to the test.’ ”
13When the devil had finished all this tempting, he left him until an opportune time.
1. Read pages 64-65
2. Look at Luke 4:1-13 and explain:
What is the meaning of this passage?
Why is it important for Christians?
What does it reveal to us about Jesus' authority?
3. Why does Luke mention being in the desert for 40 days if it was not historically accurate?
4. What does this passage teach Christians about their struggle with 'temptations'?
3.5 Healing of the Paralysed Man
Read pages 66 and 67 of the text book.
1. How does this story show the authority of Jesus? You should offer an extended answer here.
2. What do you think is the most controversial sentence in this story? Why?
3. Why do you think Jesus cured the man by forgiving his sins? (Clue: is there a connection between ‘sin’ and ‘suffering’?
4. What is the connection between ‘faith’ and ‘healing’ in the miracle? Which parts of the story show faith in Jesus?
Do you think there is any connection between sin and suffering in modern life? Explain your answer.
Prep for Next Lesson:
Read p.68-69 of the text book and write a detailed paragraph to explain Jesus’ teachings on forgiveness.
Outcomes: By the end you should ...
Know how this miracle story demonstrates the authority of Jesus
Be able to explain why Jesus initiated the cure of the man by forgiving his sins
3.6 Jesus' Teaching on Forgiveness
The authority of Jesus
Peter’s declaration: 9 18–23
18 Once when Jesus was praying in private and his disciples were with him, he asked them, “Who do the crowds say I am?”
19 They replied, “Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, that one of the prophets of long ago has come back to life.”
20 “But what about you?” he asked. “Who do you say I am?”
Peter answered, “The Christ of God.”
21 Jesus strictly warned them not to tell this to anyone. 22 And he said, “The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests and the teachers of the law, and he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life.”
23 Then he said to them all: “Whoever wants to be my disciple must deny themselves and take up their cross daily and follow me.
Read pages 68-69
What does Jesus teach about Forgiveness?
What does it mean to say that God's forgiveness is unconditional?
How can we connect forgiveness as taught by Jesus and the notion of Justice and getting what one deserves?
What role do humans play in forgiveness?
Look at Rembrandt's famous picture - what does it teach about forgiveness?
Write a response to activities 1-4 op page 69
Can one be a Christian without forgiving?
Read Luke 9:18-23 (p.70-71).
What does this passage mean?
What does it teach us about the authority of Jesus?
a. What is the importance of Peter using the word ‘Christ’?
b. Suggest reasons why Jesus warned the disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Christ of God.
c. Jesus immediately tells Peter that being the Messiah will involve suffering, death and resurrection. Why might he have done this?
Extension: choose from the following
1.What do you think Jesus meant when he said that anyone who want to follow him must ‘take up his cross and follow me’?
2. What can a Christian learn from this story about discipleship?
3. Does authority come from a title? Is there more to it than that?
3.7 Peter's Declaration
3.8 The Transfiguration
Understand ‘the Transfiguration’ as giving Jesus the authority to complete the work of the Law and the Prophets
Understand Jesus as God’s Son, as at the baptism.
Check prep - choice of one of the extension questions from last time
What does ‘Transfiguration’ mean?
Answer questions 1 & 2 from your text book.
Do you think this story is real? Give arguments for and against.
Extension – select from the following…
a. Questions 3 & 4 from your text book
b. What part of the narrative foreshadows Jesus’ resurrection?
c. Discussion: why did the disciples say nothing about this incident? (vs.36)
d. Do you think Jesus’ authority comes from his titles? Explain your answer.
e. Compare the transfiguration with the Baptism. What are the parallels?
What signs of the presence of God are there?
Voice from the cloud
How does the transfiguration emphasise Jesus’ authority?
Transfiguration - clothes become as white as a flash of lightning – a sign that Jesus is a ‘citizen of Heaven’
Moses and Elijah – Moses represents the Jewish Law, Elijah represents the Jewish prophets - the two sources of authority for Jews. They fade away leaving Jesus alone = Jesus is taking their place as God’s authority on earth. Jesus fulfils the law and the prophets, and is completing their work of bringing people to God.
In the Old Testament, Moses was on Mount Sinai when he was given authority from God. Now, Jesus is on a mountain Jesus receives authority from God.
Elijah appearing shows Jesus is the Messiah (Jews believe Elijah will return to prepare the way for the Messiah)
The voice from Heaven, “This is my Son, whom I have chosen; listen to him.”
Why is this passage important?
Another voice reinforcing that Jesus has authority from heaven. It is a sign of Jesus' real identity as a divine person.
Jesus as a man of prayer has authority from God.
Eye witness acccount of his divine nature - a foretaste of what will happen at the resurrection.
Jesus is one with Moses and Elijah and has come to complete both the law and prophecy, that is, God's involvement in human history.
It reaveals a message to us to listen and obey the words and teaching of Jesus.
Finally, it is important because of what it reveals about Peter the first disciple to speak.
This teaches the disciples about Jesus' authority.
Abid, Herb, Lucinda, Charles, Isobel, Sioned, Tom
Kelly, Hannah, Abigail, Sam, James, Amy, Matt
Will, Jade, Luke, Peter, Emily, Will, George
3.9 Martha and Mary
Answer the following questions:
1. Why was Martha upset with Mary?
She felt angry and upset that she was doing all the work and that Mary was not helping as she should have according to the cultural rules at that time. It could also be jealousy that she wasn't getting a chance to sit and be with Jesus.
She was upset at the innapropriate behaviour of Mary where she was acting like a man, not doing women's work but listening to the guest.
She perhaps felt she deserved more attention from God than Mary because she was doing her job in obedience
Perhaps also by not working as she should it was not the proper way of treating or serving their guest.
2. What does Jesus’ reply teach about his attitude to women?
It could be interpreted differently: he could be revolutionary in supporting a different cultural model for women than the patriarchy that existed at that time. Or, he could be telling Martha not to interfere.
Luke sees women as important and presents Jesus as their champion in God's eyes.
3. What title is used for Jesus? How does this show
the authority of Jesus?
He is called Lord by Martha. This could be a title of respect but also one that acknowledges his identity as divine or as a messiah. It is a messianic title and shows the faith of the women.
Know the story of Mary and Martha
Explain the meaning of the title ‘Lord’
Explain what this story suggests about Jesus’ attitude towards women
Reflect on, and express opinions about, the significance of this story for Christians and the Church today
‘Women and the Church’ worksheet.
5.1 Jesus the Messiah for all People
Imagine you are throwing a party. What types of people would you not invite? (No names – types of people only). With a partner or as a whole class, create a spider diagram of 21st century ‘outcasts’/unwanted.
Watch the extract from ‘Son of God’ (presented by Jeremy Bowen) on Jesus’ mission and his work among outcasts.
Which groups of people did Jesus welcome? Who did he challenge? Why?
Read p.102-103 and answer questions 1-4.
Extension activity: find out about the work of St Martins in the Fields, London (www.connection-at-stmartins.org.uk), or another Christian organisation that works amongst outsiders, e.g. Salvation Army.
For the next topic, find out about Roman treatment of slaves in the 1st century.
Alcoholics and addicts
5. 2 The Centurion's Servant
. Jesus criticised the Jews in this story. What did he say and what did he mean?
He spoke against their lack of faith and low quality of faith. He is commenting on the general non-acceptance of him and his message from within the Jewish faith.
Why else might some Jews have been angry with Jesus in this story?
They would have been angry because he was talking to the Romans who were considered unclearn.
Extension and enrichment:
Think about the persecution of Christians by the Romans when Luke was writing his gospel. Might Luke have had other reasons for including this story in his gospel?
He wants to promote inclusion and forgiveness of Romans who were persecuting Christians. This message of compassion and non violence is part of the Christian message.
Prep: Write a TV news report script or newspaper report from the point of view of either the Roman Centurion OR Jews witnessing this event. Tell the story from their point of view. Give your hopes, fears, views and opinions on what happened today.
Analyse the incident of the healing of the Centurion’s servant and explain how it shows Luke’s theme of universalism.
Reflect on the message of this story for Christians today.
Written Task 1:
a. What does this story show about the Centurion?
b. Is the Centurion the ideal Christian? Make a list of his characteristics / qualities. Contrast the characteristics you give with their opposite.
c. What does this narrative demonstrate about Jesus' attitude to those in need?
d. Jesus criticised the Jews in this story. What did he say and what did he mean?
e. What could Christians learn from this story today?
2. It shows that the centurion has great faith in Jesus and his power to heal. He recognises Jesus as an authoritative figure who is a messiah. He is also humble and trusting before him. He respects Jesus and is able to ask him rather than command. He also believes he is not worthy to do this.
3. Jesus willingly wants to help and reach out to those who are in need no matter who they are, what their religion or politics may be or their status in life. It demonstrates God's universal acceptance of people, all people.
4. He criticizes the low quality of faith among the Jews. He is challenging their assumed arrogance as God's people and as supposedly close to God. It is true faith that makes one God's loyal follower not religious allegiance or arrogance.
Read the story of the healing of the Centurion’s Servant, page 104-5.
How does this story show Jesus as Universal Messiah?
Why might some Jews have been angered by Jesus in this story, and why?
5.3 The Widow of Nain
Learn about the raising from the dead of the son of the widow of Nain.
Understand the importance of the raising of the woman’s son as illustrating Jesus’ compassion, authority and power.
• Understand Jesus’ approach to women
a. What does this say about the role of women in Luke’s Gospel and in Jesus teaching.
b. Why was the woman's plight so serious at that time?
c. Why did Jesus get involved in what was probably an every day occurence/tragedy? What possible motives might there be of Luke including this story in his collection?
Answer questions 1-4, p.107
What could this story mean for Christians today?
This story is important to Christians because :
We should help all people no matter their race or background or cultural origin
It says that so called outcasts can still treat people with respect and be a good neighbour
Challenges religious sectarianism and the practices that are remote from a practical compassionate treatment of others
5.5 The Parable of the Good Samaritan
The Good Samaritan
By the end of the lesson you should:
Know the story of the good samaritan and what it teaches about God
Understand why it is important for Christians and how it relates to God's universal offer of salvation
Complete activities 1-2
Extension, complete activity 3
Prep: Answer question 4
5.4 Jesus as teacher and challenger
In pairs complete activites 1-4 in your exercise books
Give reasons for your answer to "Jesus' parables have no meaning today".
Are parables still an effective form of preaching and teaching?
How important is interpretation when reading the parables of Jesus?
How can one be sure of the correct interpretation of scripture?
The marginalised today could be:
Homeless people - give them shelter and what they need like clothes and a job or activity
Addicts - help them overcome their addiction e.g. rehab
Victims of prejudice - education of those who are prejudiced, intolerance of prejudicial actions or humour, gradually transform what is acceptable
Criminals and former prisoners -
Sex offenders falsely accused -
Children in poverty
Fathers for Justice
Elderly and vulnerable
Q.4 - Effect on society if people did same as good Samaritan:
Less poverty, more generosity regarding charity and wanting to hel others
Society would be safer e.g. we would need fewer police and prisons, crime would go down, more trust would happen towards strangers
A more equal society e.g. the Kingdom of God would exist on earth. It could be like an ideal communist society or a perfect world.
Poverty and perhaps war would end as we would care practically for each other and those in need in other countries.
Explain why the parable is told to tax collectors and sinners.
Analyse the parable of the prodigal son in its 1st century context, and explain its message and challenge for Christians today.
Suggest different ways in which the parable can be interpreted.
Explain how the parable emphasises God’s love and forgiveness in relation to human repentance.
Read the parable of the Lost Son (the forgiving father).
Analyse Rembrandt’s artwork ‘The prodigal son’
(1) identify the figures
(2) comment on their attitudes
(3) There is something odd about one of the figures. What is it? What might this feature mean?
Scenario of the son who knows better than his father
pig-feeding - the deepest disgrace for a Jew
The son’s admission of his sins = repentance.
Forgiveness and love of the father; the father needs no explanation from the son - why?
The Lost Son wasting his inheritance represents sinners ignoring the Kingdom of God.
The love and forgiveness of the father represents the love of God for sinners.
The father’s forgiveness matches the repentance of the son.
The character of the elder brother represents the Pharisees.
Christians see the parable as being on different ‘levels’. For example, some think it is about resurrection.
What do each of the following represent?
The love and forgiveness of the father
The younger son
The older son2.
Answer questions 1, 2, 3, 5
5.6 The Lost Son (Forgiving Father)
Why does Jesus tell this story?
Who do the three main characters represent: Father, Lost Son, Loyal Older Son?
Father = This about the nature of God who is like a loving and forging Father. God is waitingfor us to repent and return to right relationship with him. It also reperesnts how we should act. We are called to be 'godly' just like the loving Father. We should forgive and be open to the repentance of those who offend us.
Younger Son = Sinners just like us. We are all at times just like the younger son. He wanted his own good and wanted his own way. He got lost morally and got wasted and wasted his money. He is an example of poor stewardship. he misuses his freedom.
Older Son = Represents the pharisees who believed they were better and more worthy of respect than sinners in God's eyes. They were unforgiving and legalistic in their view of life. Angry at an apparent injustice. Wants respect, more respect than the younger son and wants the younger son to be punished. Pride, egoism, selfishness, lack of forgivenes, unable to understand God's ways.
Do you think Christians should always be as forgiving as the father in the story?
In what ways is this story ‘unsettling’? How might it be ‘challenging’ today?
Extension and development
Activities - Text and Art
5.7 Zaccheus the tax collector
Read the story
What is the meaning of this story?
What does it teach us about universalism?
Answer questions 1-3
read through the revision pack ONCE
Highlight, underline or annotate whatever you think is most significant
At the back, write a list of questions or concerns you may have about this pack
4. How did Zaccheus demonstrate that he had repented and intended to change?
5. 'Zaccheus is a good role model for Christians.' Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
Why does Jesus preach a message of Universal acceptance or universal salvation?
It benefits outcasts because it welcomes them into God's kingdom
It challenges the prejudice of Jewish leaders and customs who believed they were more special and worthy of God's favour than outcasts
Sins do not separate us from God forever
Jesus wants everyone to be treated the same, that is, as a child of God deserving of respect and dignity
He sees the need and neglect of people on the fringes of society and wants to ease their social and emotional suffering
It teaches us most of all what God is like: compassionate, understanding, forgiving, quick to show mercy, as intolerant of prejudice, as open to sinners
Jesus shows us the way to salvation which is through actions and not just words. Our actions must be inclusive and showing God's love.
There is a responsibility on behalf of the outcasts to truly repent and amend their ways. To be accepted one must turn back to God and give up the evil actions that separated them in the first place.
After completing 1 a and 1b complete c and d for the next lesson (use research material if you wish).
1.3 Who was Luke - Why did he write his Gospel?
Write a biography of Luke (1 page minimum). Please include the following details: his background, friends, companions, reasons why he was writing).
1.Why was it important for Luke to write what the eyewitnesses knew?
2. Why was it important that he wrote it when he did?
3. Explain the meaning of 'Theophilus'.
4. How does praying help people when they feel they are in trouble?
1.4 and 1.5 Jewish Religious Groups in the time of Jesus
Read pages 14-15
Why did Jesus and the Pharisees challenge each other?
Why did he call them hypocrites?
For the Pharisees the law was more important than people. Explain why? For Jesus people were more important. Why?
Prep: Complete in full question 5 on page 15.
Row 1 - Tomos W Naomi Lance Tegan May Jack
Row 2 - David Hannah Tom B Will Sophia Tom P.
Row 3 -James K Alan Sammie Rebecca
Row 4 - Julius James Sam Isabelle John
Seating Plan - Screen
Jesus and the pharisees challenged each other because:
They had different views on how to follow God. For the pharisees it was most important to followthe laws to the letter. That meant obeying the 613 commands sometim es literally.
Secondly the y oposed how each of them operated.
Q.1 - To intrerpet the law and to advise people how God wants them to live. The pharisees knew the law in great detail and this gives them great power over the lives of people.
Q2. Luke 11: criticisms of Jesus against the Pharisees were all to do with their inner attitudes being different from their outward actions. "Inside you are full of greed and wickedness".
Q. 3 A hypocrite is someone whose actions do not agree with their beliefs or sayings. For example, the Pharisees oppressed people with the law rather than using it to make their lives better.
Q.4 Sometimes the needs of the people go against what God wants e.g. the death of Jesus. No. The purpose of the law was to lead people back to a right relationship with God. Instead, the law was used to control and gain power and prestige for the Pharisees.
Prep: "Jesus would have been better keeping the Pharisees on his side". Assess this view. Give reasons for your answer.
Who were the Sadducees, the Zealots and the Priests? Explain.
Describe what each groups roles were in society? (What they did)
Consider how each group may have influenced Jesus and his first disciples? (e.g. his teaching on the law)
27 Some Sadducees, those who say there is no resurrection, came to him 28 and asked him a question, "Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man's brother dies, leaving a wife but no children, the man shall marry the widow and raise up children for his brother. 29 Now there were seven brothers; the first married, and died childless; 30 then the second 31 and the third married her, and so in the same way all seven died childless. 32 Finally the woman also died. 33 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife will the woman be? For the seven had married her."
34 Jesus said to them, "Those who belong to this age marry and are given in marriage; 35 but those who are considered worthy of a place in that age and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage. 36 Indeed they cannot die anymore, because they are like angels and are children of God, being children of the resurrection. 37 And the fact that the dead are raised Moses himself showed, in the story about the bush, where he speaks of the Lord as the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. 38 Now he is God not of the dead, but of the living; for to him all of them are alive."
39 Then some of the scribes answered, "Teacher, you have spoken well." 40 For they no longer dared to ask him another question. 41 Then he said to them, "How can they say that the Messiah is David's son? 42 For David himself says in the book of Psalms, 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand, 43 until I make your enemies your footstool."' 44 David thus calls him Lord; so how can he be his son?"
45 In the hearing of all the people he said to the disciples, 46 "Beware of the scribes, who like to walk around in long robes, and love to be greeted with respect in the marketplaces, and to have the best seats in the synagogues and places of honor at banquets. 47 They devour widows' houses and for the sake of appearance say long prayers. They will receive the greater condemnation."
Read pages 16-17 and write a detailed response to the questions below.
1.7 The Authority of Jesus
Read the following texts from Luke:
In each case, who is shown as recognising Jesus’ authority and how do you know?
Read pages 20-21 and answer all the questions on page 21.
Prep: WHy did the Romans persecute the Christians? Research this, and write out a detailed conclusion.
Why should people listen to the teachings and messages of Jesus?
What was the origin of his teaching authority?
Why does he need extra authority to teach?
Why is this passage important for Christians.
Reveals his identity and his purpose
He sets out to be a prophet in accordance withthe scriptures e.g. Isaiah
God's spirit is on him
He can read Hebrew
There is a clear emphasis on who needs him - he will be a social and spiritual messiah
Fulfilling scriptures supports what Christians believe about him as the long awaited messiah - he is the fulfilment of the OT.
1. Why did Christians remain within Judaism at first?
t was safer to remain
They used the synagogues to worship in
Fear of persecution from Jews
The first Christians were Jews
The new covenant updates the old covenant to include gentiles but the identity of the new movement as God's people on earth was the same
Q2. What happened to create a separation between those who followed Judaism and the Christians?
Ans: The Jews also persecuted Christians because they allowed Gentiles (non-Jewish people) into their worshipping communities. Also, the Christians did not join forces with the Jewish forces during the Jewish-Roman war. Finally, the focus for Christianity was gaining converts in the Empire which was mostly gentile in population terms.
Read the Isaiah 61 passage and notice how similar and different it is to the prophecy of Jesus.
Q. 1 What was the prophet Isaiah promising the Jews in his prophecy?
Q. 2 What was Jesus claiming? Give a detailed answer.
Q. 3 What is Jesus' mission statement?
Q. 4 Who would think of Jesus and his mission as good news?
Q. 5 Would everyone welcome Jesus' words?
6. How might this story inspire Christians today?
Christians should do if they want to but if not they shouldn't. On the other hand no they shouldn't as other religions and belief systems also have a right to participate and lead people to create a better world.
3. Christian Aid raises money and works to improve people's lives across the world. How does this fulfil Jesus' teaching.
Luke's gospel is no longer relevant. Evaluate this view. Consider each side looking at reasons why this might be true and reasons why it might be false.
Explain how these birth narratives are used to support Jesus' message of salvation.
Q.3 What is the importance of the phrase The town of David'
It connects Jesus to the messiah King David and suggests his birth is a kind of royal birth in the line of David. It is also another element to convince the Jewish people that Jesus is the true messiah, the anointed one, the Christ.
Prep for this lesson next week:
Prepare for a text based test based on first two birth narratives from Luke, i.e., learn these two passages.
2.5 The Messiah is Born
1. Why did Mary go to Jerusalem
? Mary needed to be purified after childbirth according to the law of Moses.
2. What did she do when she got there?
She went to the temple, the court of the women and offered a sacrifice e.g. pigeons and dove, the sacrifice of the poorest people.
3. Why do you think Joseph is hardly mentio
He is not a central character to the Jesus story or events whereas Mary and Simeon are. It is Mary's story (the obvious source) not Joseph's. Joseph is not the true father of Jesus.
4. What can Christians learn from Simeon' words:
That Jesus is the long awaited messiah. That he will die a violent and painful death which will cause sorrow to his mother. He is the destined one who will bring light to the world. He will encounter opposition and his message will not be received by the people of Israel. He is the light of the gentiles (non-Jewish peoples)and so he will bring about universal salvation.
5. in what ways does the presentation in the temple emphasise the idea that Jesus was going to bring salvation?
Faith brings healing. Jesus is promoting faith as one's attitude when in need or when sick. All things are possible for God.
He promotes an intimate familial relationship between them - related by faith.
They would have been afraid of rejection because in Jewish society they were considered outcasts (those who were sick were believed to be unclean).
Faith is the beginning of healing as it brings one into right relationship with God. Trusting in God is the most important thing to a person. This faith is all consuming and involves living in the right way.
Most hated family in Amerca
This family are exclusivists because they exclude everyone from salvation
Read the story from Luke
What is the meaning of this passage?
Patriarchy = a society controlled by men where women are treated as inferiors to men. Comes from the Latin word for father - pater.
Q.1 - The parable challenged Simon - how?
Firstly because he is directly addressed by Jesus to show his understanding of Jesus and his teaching on forgiveness. He appears to be reluctant to answer which might be that he doesn't get what Jesus is teaching. Why? Because, he is part of his society which considered sinners as remote from God and deserving of all kinds of punishment.
Simon considered himself to be righteous and so less in need of God's forgiveness (he was loyal to the law). Jesus teaches that everyone needs forgiveness and especially the religiously observant.
Q.2. - What does the parable teach about God's forgiveness?
God's forgiveness is inclusive of every sinner. God's forgiveness does not depend on one's situation or place within human society. His forgiveness depends on the faith and repentance of individuals. This faith is expressed in actions.
Q.4. - What could the incident of the sinful woman and Jesus' parable mean for Christians today?
This incident is relevant today because a tendency among people to not take responsibility for wrong doing. Debt and what we owe to each other and to God is not often appreciated. People do not like using the language of sin. Perhaps, Sin and Debt to God has become outdated.
There are still outcasts in our society and even within Christian organizations and this parable challenges behaviour that perpetuates prejudice.
We all need to receive God's forgiveness through faith and repentance which should lead to actions that make our society a better place.
Because it is greek it is directed towards the gentiles (or at the very least people who knew Greek which was the entire Mediterranean world)
However, this is mostly directed towards the Jewish people because of the origins of the word which means 'anointed one'. In Hebrew the anointed one of God was the 'messiah'.
Who is Jesus? What did the first Christians think about him? How did Jesus see himself?
Icthus = Greek word for fish but also an acronym of some titles of Jesus
I - Iesus
X - Xristos (Christ)
Th - Theos (God)
U - Uios (Son)
S - Soter (saviour)
John taught that people should share, be moral in their actions and intentions (just and fair). It creates community and also abolishes injustice and the social sins that oppress the weakest.
He also taught people to make amends for their wrong doing by saying sorry and changing their lifestyles. It reduces crime and sin and ensures people receive justice.
John needed the HS because ....
It is simply a human teaching. It gave him courage, strength to go against the people who had power. He was fearless and not interested in his own welfare. He also needed wisdom from God to know how to challenge the unjust society.
It is about resisting temptation to turn away from God (sin). It shows Jesus obeying God and adopting a right attitude as a human. He is able to resist the devil's temptations. Jesus is sinless which makes him unique and special as a human.
Christians are called to do what Jesus did and to also resist temptation in how they try to live out their relationship with God.
Christians focus on this during the season of lent as it helps them prepare for Easter.
Jesus is taking the necessary time to prepare himself spiritually so as to begin his ministry. This is a consequence of his baptism. Because of the power of God working in him he is enabled to resist the physical and other temptations. He is a person who has been specially enabled by God's spirit. He is more than able to counter the power of evil. Evil cannot break him or turn him from following God..
He is able to forgive sin. He challenges the authority of the scribes and pharisees. It demonstrates that he is the Son of Man according to Jewish prophetic tradition. He was able to act miraculously. This action helped other people believe and have faith. It sets Jesus out as a special and perhaps unique character. His use of title Son of Man has messianic connotations.
Sin leads to suffering and separation from God
He addresses the spiritual and the physical suffering of the man
This sin was considered a punishment from God.
Only God was able to forgive sin.
The healing of the man's body was also a healing and reconciling of the man spiritually
His challenge to the scribes and pharisees
His use of the title Son of Man
The son of man can forgive sins.
1. Why did Jesus ask 'who do the crowds say I am?'
Jesus didn't fully understand his own identity at this stage. Also, his identity was unclear to him. Likewise, he wanted to understand how well his teachings were being understood.
2. What is the importance of Peter using the word 'christ'?
Peter is the first and also it is the first time he was identified formally as being the messiah. It showed the authority of Jesus and also the amount of faith of Peter and that he is the first to gain this insight into Jesus. Jesus is the anointed one, the messiah of God, but also GOd's son.
3. How do you think Jesus felt when he heard the words of Peter.
He was happy at the fact some people understand who he was. Shock but also curiosity at how his message was being received by the people and his disciples.
Why was Martha upset with Mary?
What does Jesus' reply teach us about his view of women?
What title is used to describe Jesus? How does this give him authority?
Extension: choose from the following:
a. What can Christians learn from this story for today? For example: what themes does it cover?
b. What does this story have to say about the issue of women priests?
c. Research activities 1 and 2, page 75.
Why does Jesus preach Universal Salvation? Give reasons for your answer.
1. What does this story show about Jesus as Messiah?
Jesus was an inclusive messiah and treated everyone the same. His message is relevant for everyone no matter what background or belief they come from. Faith in him is the way to access salvation
a. What does this story show about the Centurion?
The centurion had faith and trusted in his word and authority. He was humble and wise and not like other Romans in his respect for the faith of the Jews and of the authority of Jesus. The Romans practiced polytheism which is a belief in many Gods. This allowed them to be tolerant and inclusive of all Gods which in this case meant the God of the Jews and of the first Christians.
c. What does this story show about Jesus’ attitude to those in need?
Jesus wants to help everyone. He reaches out and wants to be compassionate. He is especially open to those who approach him in their need.
1. There is no evidence of faith in this story. What does this teach about Jesus' attitude to those in need.
He can see the need of people in dificulties. He is open and free to helping whenever he can and in this case he understands immediately the tragedy of a widow losing a son e.g. she loses her support and protection. He acts compassionately.
2. What did Jesus do wrong in this miracle from a Jewish believers's point of view?
He touched the bier of the dead man which was considered unclean and so he made himself unclean which was against the religious law and social custom of the time. He also addressed the need of the widow which shames the religious practice of the Pharisees. His inclusive actions was a challenge to the exclusivist approach of the Pharisees.
3. What does this story teach about Jesus' message and work?
Jesus models compassionate attitude to all those who are in need no matter what social customs oppose this. He puts people first and this reveals the compassionate and understanding side of God. His work is to extend universal salvation to everyone.
4. How does this story point towards Jesus' own death - what similarities are there?
Jesus died in the presence of his mother. Death was also defeated in this time. The pharisees and Jewish leaders in both occasions fail to understand who he is and what is message is all about.
Prep for 9T and 9E- 30 April/ 1 May
"Jesus' parables can have no meaning for today". Evaluate this view using reasons and examples for both sides of your answer.
The audience for this parable = tax collectors and sinners, Pharisees and scribes.
Also only in Luke – why?
15:1–2 sets the scene of the audience of tax collectors and sinners, together with the Pharisees and scribes whose religious feelings were outraged that Jesus received such people and ate with them.
Particular points to note:
Details of the story and its significance:
Watch the video of the story
What would you do? Who today might symbolize those who walked by? Who might symbolize the Samaritan?
Why, in your opinion, is this important and relevant to Christians even today?
1. Why was Luke anxious to emphasize that this story was told to sinners and tax collectors?
These people were the most excluded in the society at the time of Jesus. They were the lowest of the low and traditionally seen as beyond the realms of God's forgiveness and religion.
2. How does this passage help sinners and tax collectors understand God's message to them.
God loves and accepts them and will always welcome them back. It gives them hope that they too can enjoy salvation and be in right relationship with God forever. It is a story of a loving God who accepts the genuine repentance of those who had fallen away from righteousness.
3. Are you surprised by any of the father's actions in this story?
ON human terms one could expect the father to be retributive and to punish or be angry with the lost Son. The father's love has no conditions. Unconditional love of the father to those who are lost. The father love's both sons (the older son stands for the righteous and obedient religious people).
5. What could Christians learn about the nature of God from this parable.
The nature of God is loving, compassionate, quick to forgive, holds no grudges, is understanding of all his people's difficulties and faults. He loves the lost and the found equally.
1. How does Luke emphasise how much Jesus was prepared to show that the Kingdom of God was for everyone?
Jesus was open to talking and visitig with Z. Jesus is not put off by the prejudice of the Jews. He models an acceptance of Z because this is what God wants. He also invites Zacchaeus to return to right relationship with God.
He calls him a son of Abraham which signifies he is part of God's holy people. Through this event he is saved from Sin. He is able to repent of his sinful actions. God accepts sinners even though he condemns the sin. What matters to God is the individual and his or her salvation.
2. Why do you think that Luke includes this narrative in such detail? What are the main teaching points for Christians?
Sinners are accepted in God's Kingdom
detail gives the story believablility (credence) which will appeal to the gentile audience
Jesus sets a memorable example to the crowd
Jericho - is a holy city (the most ancient surviving city)
Do not sin but if you do you can make amends
One must be open to outcasts in our society as this is what God wants and this is what God did.
Salvation is available to everyone if they repent
3. Why did the crowd react as they did?
they reacted because a religious leader went to a sinners house and ignored his sin. He made himself unclean in the eyes of the crowd by associating himself with sinners. As an unclean person he was considered far away from God and God's ways and laws.