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Washington Era

Ch 9
by

Margie de Quesada

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of Washington Era

The Federalist Era
Washington Takes Office
- Took first oath as President in 1789, along with John Adams as his VP
- He set precedents about the office of President
Cabinet
Made up of:
- Department of State: Thomas Jefferson
- Department of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
- Department of War: Henry Knox
- Attorney General: Edmund Randolph
Judiciary Act of 1789
- GW and Congress established a federal court system
- 13 district courts
- 3 circuit courts
- First chief justice was John Jay
Fixing the
National Debt

Hamilton's Plan
- He said the national government should pay back all of what the states owed to other countries and American citizens (from the Revolution).
Opposition to Hamilton's Plan
- Congress did not want to pay back the full amount to the citizens
( people had bought bonds)
- Southern states didn't like this because they owed less money
Compromise and a Capital
- To keep the Southern states happy, Hamilton said he'd make the nation's capital closer to the South
- Created a special district between Maryland and Virginia called Washington D.C.
More Hamilton Ideas
- He created a national bank
- Did not allow states to print their own currency any more
- Created tariffs on imported goods
- This forced the U.S. to manufacture more goods instead of buying from other countries
- Created national taxes to help pay off the debt
Whiskey Rebellion
- Farmers in Pennsylvania protested a tax on whiskey
- Washington and the new federal army went to stop them from attacking tax collectors and burning buildings
Challenges in the West
- American settlers continue moving onto Native American lands near Ohio (breaking U.S. treaties with them)
- British ally with the Native Americans and build a fort in Ohio
- Washington sends troops
1. General Arthur St. Clair leads U.S. army (we lose to the Miami Tribe)
2. General Anthony Wayne (the U.S. defeats the Shawnee Tribe at the Battle of Fallen Timbers)
U.S. and Native Americans sign the Treaty of Greenville (Native Americans give up their lands in Ohio)
Problems with Europe
- The French Revolution began
- France and England go to war and France wants America's help
- Washington issues a Proclamation of Neutrality (doesn't allow French or British ships in American ports)
- British captured American ships that still traded with the French and forced American soldiers into the British navy
- This was known as impressment
Jay's Treaty
Washington sends John Jay to make a deal with the British
- British agreed to leave the U.S. permanently
Pinckney's Treaty
- Washington wanted to make peace with Spain, so he sent Thomas Pinckney to make a deal
- U.S. was given free trade throughout the Mississippi River and access to New Orleans
Hamilton believed the Constitution had "implied powers" (not expressly forbidden)
Election of 1796
- First time that candidates ran as opposing parties
- Federalists nominated John Adams
- Democratic Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson
- Adams wins and Jefferson becomes his VP
XYZ Affair
- France wanted to punish America so they took U.S. ships that were carrying cargo to Britain
- France sent 3 representatives to meet with our representatives and they asked for bribe money
- John Adams finds out and calls each French official X,Y,Z and says we have to prepare for war
Alien and Sedition Acts
- Allowed the President to send aliens out of the country and imprison any he thought were dangerous
- Made it a crime for them to publish, write or say anything bad about the government
Adams became very unpopular because of these acts
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
- Jefferson proposed a bill that said the Alien and Sedition Acts violate the Constitution .
- Kentucky and Virginia were the only states who passed it
- These resolutions said that states should be able to nullify (legally overturn) national laws
Chapter 9
Section 1 - The First President
Section 2 - Early Challenges
Washington Leaves Office
- In his farewell address he gave 2 warnings for the future:
1. "Steer clear of permanent alliances"
2. Political parties would divide the nation
Section 3 - The First Political Parties
The Bank
- Title would be "Mr. President"
- Served two terms
- Gave an Inauguration and Farewell Address
- Vacationed back at Mt. Vernon at times
- Gave a "State of the Union" Address to Congress
- Swore an oath to uphold the Constitution
https://bingobaker.com/play/347068
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